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cell bio exam 1
Terms in this set (100)
characteristics of living cells
* similar basic chemistry
*complex and highly organized
*produced by division of preexisting cells
* take energy & matter from environment
*respond to stimuli
prokaryotic cells organelle that contains genetic material
eukaryotic and prokayotic translates mRNA into protein
Contents of the main compartment of the cytoplasm, excluding membrane-enclosed organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The cell fraction remaining after membranes, cytoskeletal components, and other organelles have been removed.
A long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
prokaryotic. A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
mechanically strong fibrous layer deposited by a cell outside its plasma membrane
Present in most plant, bacteria, algae, & fungi
more complex structure in prokaryotes
Protein-containing lipid bilayer that surrounds a living cell
Prokaryotic. appendages that provide attachment points or channels
Prokaryotic. Intracellular, membrane-enveloped magnetic crystals that help some bacteria navigate.
similarities between bacteria and archaea
-lack nucleus and other organelles
-utilization of a variety of physiological strategies for acquiring carbon and energy
-include many examples of extremophiles
-unicellular, with very little cell specialization (are generatlists)
-vary in micro-scale size, but usually much smaller than eukaryotes
-even though archaea & bacteria are really similar archaea is more related to eurkarya
differences between archaea and bacteria
-Archaea contains no peptidoglycan
-Bacteria has antibiotic sensitivity
-rRNA loop and common arm of tRNA are present
"salt-loving" archaea that live in environments that have very high salt concentrations
Archaea that thrive in very hot environments, such as volcanic springs.
organisms classified as eukaryotes
animals, fungi, and plants
differentiate between 3 types of protists
Thin, film-like barrier between outside & inside of a cell
surrounds all living cells
Contains linear DNA
surrounds nucleus and has nuclear pores
visible within nucleus
Site of rRNA synthesis
generates ATP through cellular respiration and fatty acid degradation
capture energy from sunlight; found in plants and algae; 3 membranes: outer, inner, and thylakoids
produces many cellular components
Irregular maze of interconnected spaces
Membrane is continuous with nuclear envelope
protein production and secretion
fat and steroid hormone production and stores calcium, lacks ribosomes
Involved in Distribution & Shipping
Stacks of flattened membrane-enclosed sacs
Modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion
Transport of lipids around the cell
Creation of lysosomes
various functions relating to isolating harmful materials
Storage of Water, Proteins, Small molecules
animal cells only
Function: breakdown of unwanted molecules
Function: breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids; chemical detoxification
Function: Transport of material between organelles
mitochondrial fusion vs fission
fusion - increase in mitochondrial mass
fission- increase in mitochondrial number
4 types of small organic molecules
1. monosaccharide (makes di-, olgio-, and polysaccharidess)
2. fatty acid (makes lipids, phosopholips, and steroids)
3. amino acid (makes polypeptides/ proteins)
4. nucleotides (makes nucleic acids/ DNA and RNA)
4. Nucleic Acids
short term energy... Fuel supply for cellular work
Raw material to make other organic molecules
Act as a boundary - Lipids are a major component of cell membranes
Lipids circulate in the body acting as chemical signals to cells - some are hormones
long term energy.... Used to store energy in the body
Act to cushion and insulate the body
nucleic acids functions
store genetic information
amino acids functions
-each amino acid can have various additional functions
-as enzymes that aid in digestion
-essential parts of hormones
-required for antibody formation
-hair and skin pigmentation
monosaccharide that is used by body cells for energy, and is stored by skeletal muscle and the liver as glyocgen
monosaccharide that serves as a marker to tell which fruits are nutritionally rich.
a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; also known as table sugar
ABO Blood typing sugars
olgiosacharides found outside of blood cells that affect ABO blood type
polysaccharide stored in plants; the storage form of glucose in plants.
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
How do fatty acids differ?
chain length and degree of saturation
Why are steroids considered lipids?
how do hydrophobic interactions contribute to the formation of cell membranes
stabilizes the lipid bilayer structure
nucleotide vs nucleoside
nucleoTide = base + sugar + phosphate
nucleoSide = base + sugar
Essential Amino Acids
10 amino acids not produced by the human body that must be supplied in the food.
10 amino acids that are naturally produced by the human body
4 levels of protein structure
1. Primary structure (order/sequence of amino acids)
2. Secondary structure (alpha helix or beta sheets)
3. Tertiary structure (overall shape of a single polypeptide chain)
4. Quaternary structure (shape of 2 or more polypeptide chains together)
how do noncovalent interactions contribute to ligand binding
ligands bind through non-covalent interactions
enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis
enzyme that breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides
Enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds breaks down proteins into amino acids
An enzyme that catalyzes the linking together of two molecules
Enzyme that rearranges bonds in molecule to give an isomer
enzyme that catalyzes condensation reactions which makes polymers
enzyme that adds a phosphate group
enzyme that removes phosphate group
enzyme that catalyzes redox reactions
enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP
release of G & A that results in the loss of a purine base from a nucleotide when DNA is replicated
the conversion of C to U that results in substitution of one base part for another when DNA is replicated
when UV radiation promotes linkage between adjacent pyrimidine bases
Is starch a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
Is cellulose a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
Is glycogen a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
Is sucrose a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
Covalent bonds linking two or more monosaccharides
Is fructose a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
Is glucose a monosaccharide, disaccharide, or a polysaccharide?
differentiate between plant and animal cells
Plant cells have a cell wall, one large central vacuole, chloroplasts.
Animal cells have lysosomes, many vacuoles, centrioles
differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
prokayotes: no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles and no cytoskeleton and has circular DNA
eukaryotes: has nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and has linear DNA
monomers link to form polymers during which water molecules are removed
water is added to break down a polymer
How is energy released from ATP?
When a phosphate group is removed (via a hydrolysis reaction)
How is ATP regenerated from ADP?
a phosphate group is combined with ADP via a condensation reaction
chains formed by bonded amino acids
Bonds that connect amino acids
strong covalent bond that forms the backbone of DNA and RNA molecules; links the 3' carbon of one sugar to the 5' carbon of another
covalent bonds in triglyceride molecules formed by a condensation reaction between Glycerol and a Fatty Acid.
backbone-backbone, side chain-side chain
backbone-back bone, backbone-side chain, side chain-side chain
van der Waals attractions
proteins fold to protect hydrophobic amino acids from aqueous cytosol
S-S covalent bonds that reinforce protein conformation
proteins that can adopt abnormal, misfolded forms
complex formed by two, identical, non-covalently bound, macromolecules.
complex formed by two, different, non-covalently bound, macromolecules.
Complex formed by four, non-covalently bound, macromolecules
Any substance that is bound by a protein
ligands that bind to antibodies
the molecule upon which an ezymes acts
three ways in which enzymes can encourage catalysis
forces transition state
what are some common post-translational modifications
methylation, phosphorylation, hydroxylation, acetylation, disulfide bonds, glycosylation
how can GTP binding and hydrolysis influence activity of the GTP-binding protein
can cause conformational changes
how does nucleotide binding and hydrolysis contribute to the movement of motor proteins
can cause them to move
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