103 terms

AP HUG Unit 2

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census
an official count or survey of a population
census' in the united states
Local (city) and state governments strive for accurate population counts mostly for federal govt. Money for things based on population data

Ex.) $ to disadvantaged groups
# of seats in House is based on population
population density
Total population divided by land area (# of ppl/square miles
or square km).

PD is a skewed figure that assumes an even distribution over land.
It does not take into account, for example, the sparse populations in Alaska, Hawaii, Arizona, Montana, Wyoming, etc in the US...or the vast distribution of people in Russia
Arithmetic Population Density
the figure yielded after calculating total population divided by total land area (real density)
How do some geographers measure PD more accurately?
they measure PD as population divided by area of arable
(farmable) land for a more accurate measurement

Ex) Example: 90% of Egypt is unlivable. Population density would be skewed if you measure people/total land size. Most Egyptians live beside valley and delta of Nile River. 98% of Egypt's population lives in 3% of the countries' land
Physiological Population Density Figure
the figure yielded after calculating number of people divided by arable (farmable) land
Agricultural Density
# of Farmers/Unit of Arable Land (gives us indication of
development-specifically level of mechanization)
Population Distribution
the arrangement of people on Earth's surface; a focused look at how people are not distributed evenly across the world or within countries
1/3 of the population lives in...?
China or India (and this is still with large areas in both countries that are sparsely populated)
Dot Maps
Thematic maps that use dots to represent a certain number of phenomenon such as population; each dot represents a certain # of people
Changes in density and distribution trends
First: Humanity has always been unevenly distributed (bc much of Earth is unlivable)

Second: When the world's civilizations were all agrarian, there was almost a perfect correlation between arable land and population density (the more farmable the land=the more people)

But then modernity (agricultural technology/improvements in transportation) caused human settlements to progress towards more industrial, urban societies
megapolis
an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas
East Asia
-The densest concentration of population by region.
-About 1/4 of world's population lives in China, Japan, and Korea (1.36 billion in China alone)
Dense populations in major cities/ nodes (Tokyo, Seoul, Incheon, Shanghai, Beijing) and along Yellow and Yangtze River valleys
-Populations along Yellow and Yangtze River valleys produce wheat and rice to provide food for major Chinese urban centers
South Asia
- India = 1.25 billion ppl
- Dense concentrations extend into Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka
- People live in cities and on river basins

Demographers (population demographics) predict the population is growing more rapidly in South Asia than East Asia as China has a declining total fertility rate (TFR) as a result of one child policy (too many males) and as a result of increasing opportunities for women (education/career)
Europe
Europe's Pop Cluster: 715 million

Europe's population not as closely tied to terrain or environment. (In
Asia most ppl live near water for more primary or secondary economic activities)

In Europe, most of the population is urban (started w/ the Industrial Revolution in England and Germany). Population linked w/ coal fields and cities

75%-80% urban
North America
- Densest population cluster in NA=Northeast Megalopolis (Boston- DC)-about 17 percent of the U.S. population (52.3 million/318.9 million

- In Canada, around 75% lives within 100 mi of U.S. border in cities like Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Vancouver, and Calgary

- Consider this though: Population of NE megalopolis is 2.8% of East Asian cluster
Thomas Malthus
wrote an essay on the Principles of Population. He predicted that population increase would eventually surpass food supplies needed to sustain the world's population.
What did Thomas Malthus fail to predict?
the globalization of agricultural goods, the mechanization of agricultural production, refrigeration, improved strains of seed, fertilizers, bioengineering for genetically modified organisms (gmo's), and the use of herbicides and pesticides that all aid in food production.
Who are Neo-Malthusians and what do they believe?
They are people who believe in Malthus' findings/theories. They claim that population increase will still lead to many problems as well as comprehensive human suffering.
problems associated with overpopulation
Increases in famine (food shortage), spreading of disease (epidemics/pandemics), natural resource depletion, competition between states over resources (war), lack of job availability, increased crime due to human proximity and scarcity of necessities... and more pollution
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
average # of children born to a woman of childbearing age (stable population needs 2.1 TFR or higher)
What major variable causes TFR to drop?
educational opportunity
Birthrate
number of live births per 1,000 ppl in one year
Death rate
number of deaths per 1,000 ppl in one year
Natural Increase (Rate of Natural Increase-RNI)
A simple calculation of total births-total deaths in a place. This is a skewed measurement as it fails to account for other variables in population change...
immigration
number of ppl who move into a country (like births, adds to total
population)
Emigration
Emigration (Outmigration)-number of ppl who leave a country to live in other
places (like deaths, reduces the population)
Why do high growth rates in Muslim countries in N. Africa and SW Asia (Sudan, Yemen, Afghanistan, Palestinian territories) continue?
...
lower TFRs means that...?
More social/educational/economic opportunities for women
world population will allegedly stabilize btwn 2050 and 2100 because...?
longer life expectancy and lower fertility rates
Dependency Ratio
an age-population ratio of those typically not in the labor force (the dependent part) and those typically in the labor force (the productive part). It is used to measure the economic pressure put on the productive part of the population
The economic strain on a working population (productive) to support a population's young and old (non productive) is known as __________________
age dependency
Developed countries are increasingly becoming ___________________ as the fertility rates drop and life expectancies increase.
old age dependent
Old Age Dependency Ratio
# of ppl over 65 vs. # of ppl between 15-64 (right now in Europe is 24-100. Will be 50-100 by 2050)
Undeveloped or developing countries remain ___________________ as their rate of natural increase remains higher than that of the developed world
child dependent
Child Dependency Ratio
# of dependent children vs. ppl between 15-64 (right now in Africa is 74-100)
In countries with aging populations (TFRs below replacement levels), how does society meet the needs of its older population?
...
Demographic Transition Model
economic development causes differences in population demographics
Stage 1 of Demographic Transition
most of the world before the Industrial Revolution, both birth rates and death rates are high. As a result, population size remains fairly constant but can have major swings with events such as wars or pandemics (i.e. Bubonic Plague in 1300's).
Stage 2 of Demographic Transition
introduction of modern medicine lowers death rates, especially among infants and children, while birth rates remain high; the result is rapid population growth. Many of the least developed countries today are in Stage 2.
Stage 3 of Demographic Transition
Late Expanding birth rates gradually decrease, usually as a result of improved economic conditions, an increase in women's status, and access to/acceptance of contraception. Population growth continues, but at a lower rate. Most developing countries are in Stage 3.
Stage 4 of Demographic Transition
Low Stationary birth and death rates are both low, stabilizing the population. These countries tend to have stronger economies, higher levels of education, better healthcare, a higher proportion of working women, and a fertility rate hovering around two children per woman. Most developed countries are in Stage 4.
Stage 5 of Demographic Transition (possibility)
Declining would include countries in which fertility rates have fallen significantly below replacement level (2.1 children) and the elderly population is greater than the youthful or productive population.
Growth rate cycles/demographic cycles go through stages as a place develops economically
What can the DTM not predict?
the impact of other demographic variables such as migration or how long a country will be in each stage
stationary population level (SPL)
the leveling off of population growth
Population Composition
the description of a population according to characteristics such as age (child dependents, productive population, elderly dependents) and sex (more detailed analyses can display other variables like education levels of population)
Population Pyramid for Undeveloped countries
Undeveloped countries w/ high TFR/RNI (high growth rates) tend to have high infant and child mortality rates and short life expectancies.

Age-sex population pyramid will have a wide base w/ a narrow top.
3 conclusions about a country with a population pyramid that has a wide base and a narrow top
undeveloped, low education, high TFR
Population Pyramid for Developed Countries
Developed countries w/ low TFR/RNI (low growth rates) have low infant and child mortality rates and long life expectancies. Age-sex pyramids have a uniform shape with a bulge in the middle. That is the middle age group from baby boom generation getting older and moving up the pyramid.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1,000 live births.

IMR is is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Countries with the lowest IMRs
Japan (2.2/1000)
Singapore (1.80
Sweden (2.6)
Why is IMR considered to be a snapshot of the overall health of a society?
Women in countries w/ high TFR (>2.1) tend to be uneducated, malnourished, exhausted from being overworked, and suffering from disease
What is leading cause of death for infants in UNDEVELOPED countries
malnutrition, diarrhea, malaria, measles, and blood bacteria infection —>poor sanitation and NO prenatal doctor visits because of a lack of doctors/health care
What is leading cause of death for infants in DEVELOPED countries
accidents, childhood cancer, congenital abnormalities (pre- term/low birth weight), pregnancy complications or SIDS
Child Mortality Rate
the # of deaths of children ages 1-5 per 1,000 births

(like IMR, is a reflection of healthcare, socioeconomic/power dynamics, and level of development in a nation.)
Where are the highest IMRs and Child Mortality Rates?
Africa & South Asia
life expectancy
# of years, on avg, a person is expected to remain alive in a nation; Figure takes into account infant and child mortality as well as those who survive well beyond the avg.

japan has highest (83)
Under 5 mortality and infant mortality both provide quick snapshots of a place's __________________________
medical advancement (healthcare)
When chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and liver disease are the leading forms of death then we know that place has has high __________________
life expectancy
endemic spatial extent of disease
spreads over small area
How disease and Geography (the study of space) interact...
1) where people live affects what types of disease they may contract (i.e. mosquitoes in tropics where they thrive)
2) where people move affects disease transmission
epidemic extent of disease
spreads over a region
pandemic extent of disease
spreads globally
infectious diseases
Diseases spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Can diffuse directly (Non-vectored) or
indirectly (Vectored).
Non-Vectored Infectious Disease
transmitted by direct contact between host and victim

ex) influenza, cold, HIV/AIDS
Vectored Infectious Diseases
transmitted by an intermediary vector (like a mosquito in the case of malaria)
Chronic (Degenerative) Diseases
Long-lasting afflictions. Associated with middle and older age humans thanks to longer life expectancies (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, etc)
Genetic (Inherited) Diseases
caused by a mutation in a gene or group of genes (sickle cell anemia)
expansive population policies
When the country's government encourages larger families in order to raise the Rate of Natural Increase (R.N.I.) (Typically when governments believe population increase is necessary for economic output OR to alleviate the strain of old age dependency)
Eugenic Population Policies
When a country puts policies in place that favor one group over others.

Examples) Nazi Germany is extreme example. The United States in the late 19th century (Nativism) and again after WW1 used Eugenic ideas to justify anti-immigration policies (National Origins Act/Chinese Exclusion Act)
Restrictive Population policies
When a country strives to halt the R.N.I. of a country by setting limits on the size of families in that country. If the family exceeds the number set by the government, the government may enact a penalty on the family.

Ex) china's 1 child policy and indies sterilization policy
Bracero program
A 1940s-era U.S. government program designed to en- courage Mexicans to come to the United States to work as contract laborers.
cyclic movement
Repeated movement or regular journeys through activity spaces. They begin @ home base and return to the same place
What is the term for political protection offered by a country to someone who has left their native country?
asylum
3 types of cyclic movement
1) commuting
2) seasonal movement
3) nomadism
International/Transitional Migration
Permanent movement across country borders. An international migrant is an emigrant (from the source country) and an immigrant (in the destination country).
Periodic Movement
Temporary but recurrent relocation at IRREGULAR intervals. (Examples: military service/
migrant farm work that is dependent on opportunities/going away to college for four years and returning home at irregular times)
Remittances
money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
Internal Migration
Permanent relocation within a country's borders (example-1st/2nd Great Migration of African Americans and now the Reverse Great Migration)
Reverse Remittances
money sent from home to immigrants
Forced Migration
Impositions of authority or power that produce involuntary movements

Ex) Human trafficking, The Atlantic Slave trade in the European Colonial Period
Voluntary Migration
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived activity (not forced); decision to leave is a combination of push and pull factors
push factors
Conditions/perceptions that contribute to migrant deciding to leave a place (source)
pull factors
Circumstances that attract a migrant to a new place (destination)
5 Laws of Migration
1) Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration

2) The majority of migrants move a short distance

3) Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations

4) Urban residents are less migratory
than inhabitants of rural areas.

5) Families are less likely to make
international moves than young adults
Laws of Migration
5 laws come up by Ernst Ravenstein to show repeating trends about migration
The Gravity Model of Migration
uses a mathematical formula to predict the likelihood that migrants will be attracted to the nearest big city; takes into account the population size of two places and their distance

designed to predict/anticipate migration
mathematical formula for the gravity model
population 1 x population 2 / distance^2

The relative strength of a bond between two places is determined by multiplying the population of city/
place A by the population of city/place B and then dividing the product by the distance between the two cities squared.
Distance Decay
Describes the effect of distance on cultural and spatial interactions. Migrants have more complete perceptions of nearer places than further ones. Therefore, interaction between places decreases w/ time and space causing most migrants to choose destinations that are closer and it contributes to the lower likelihood of cultural traits diffusing from the hearth to the destination as the distance increases.
Step Migration
Similar to urban hierarchy. People often move in stages. Rural area to village to town to city.
intervening opportunity
the presence of a near opportunity that greatly dimities the attractiveness of sites farther away
Types of Push and Pull Factors
1) Economic Conditions (Lack of opportunity/lack of stability)
2) Power Relationships (Gender, ethnicity, race, money) 3) Political Circumstances (Escaping oppression)
4) Armed Conflict/Civil War (Lack of stability)
5) Environmental Conditions (i.e. Natural Disasters)
6) Culture and Traditions (The fear that your culture/traditions will be eradicated due to political transitions)
7) Technological Advances (Information about far away places travel quickly and travel technology allows people to get to destinations quickly)

Kinship Links—>Chain Migration—>Immigration Waves
Migratory movement that occurs in stages is known as _________________
step migration
Kinship Links
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrants decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Chain Migration
pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (communicates through others about a place)
The foundational geography principal known as ____________________ states that as you move further away so desk the likelihood of spatial interaction and cultural similarity.
distance decay
Migration Flows
large scale migrations of people (hundreds of thousands) migrating along similar paths
What is the stateless national group in Myanmar that is currently undergoing systemic persecution and forced dislocation?
Rohingya
What country are the Rohingya people going to?
Bangladesh
Another stateless national group that was famously displaced during and after the creation of the sovereign state of Isreal in 1948. They are the _________________
Palestinians
Guest Workers (Aka Migrant Labor)
A catalyst for migration flow when there is a significant need for migrant labor in a destination
Economic Opportunity (Islands of Development)
Regional Migration Flow; Industrialized centers in (less developed/ldc's) developing countries where there are many paying jobs and foreign investment. They are cities that draw foreign workers.
Explain how nationalism led to what's happening in Myanmar.
if you have a diverse country, the dominant part wants homogenuity; in order for this to happen it forces other groups to move (causes conflicts)