cause: gentrification of cities, used to talk about the central going to die, everyone moving to the suburbs, downtown had crime, unpleasant, all jobs made in suburbs, middle class moving to suburbs, what can we do about it? Nothing. Economics premise changed, Demographics change, industrial economies changed, in such a way a lot of people are flocking back to cities, especially young people. planners, traditional hostility between planners and economists. Economists get the prices right and the market will take care it. Economists mindset "I like the way I dress, I don't like the way you dress, but I will not tell you how to dress". Planners mindset: planners have a vision of the good life, they try and impose their vision on other people., vision of the good life. They have a vision of the old new England village, people live around a village green, a lot of community participation, people just walked to work, everyone knew each other , well they make transit development oriented development, means the state transportation budget, most of the money allocated to highways is allocated to mass transit. Santa Monica line is justified, but most other transit projects in the city are not justified based on cost-benefit analysis and would be much better spent on highways: widening freeways, improving the cities, improving freeways. Large, and indeed one very large (Rome had a population of over 1 million inhabitants at the height of the Empire), cities existed in the Western World in ancient times -- Athens, Babylon, Istanbul, and Alexandria. But for several hundred years after the first sack of Rome in 410 AD (wikipedia: List of the largest European cities in history) there were virtually no cities of any size in Western Europe. In the year 1000 AD, Rome had a population of 30,000, Paris a population of 20,000, and London a population of 40,000. We take cities for granted but there was a time in Western Europe when the urbanized population was no more than 5% of the total population.