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Human Nutrition Chapter 4
Terms in this set (16)
Why do we need carbohydrates?
greatest energy source
What are the three major monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, galactose
What are the three major disaccharides?
sucrose, lactose, maltose
role of monosaccharides
basic unit of carb structure
role of diasacchrides
two simple sugars are chemically bonded
why are some foods not considered concentrated sources of carbohydrates (milk, cookies)?
high fat or protein content
What is lactose intolerance?
inability to digest lactose
List three alternatives to simple sugars for adding sweetness to the diet
Stevia, Aspartame (Equal), Sucralose (Splenda)
Basic steps of blood glucose regulation? (4)
1. Carbs are digested and taken up by absorptive cells of small intestine
2. Resulting monosaccharides are transported to liver
3. Liver guards excess glucose from entering bloodstream
4. Liver and pancreas work together to regulate blood glucose levels
What is the role of fiber in the diet?
Current carbohydrate intake recommendations?
45%-65% of daily calories or 130 grams per day
Ill effects of sugar on the diet are?
Obesity, Tooth Decay, Diabetes
Role of insulin?
Decreases blood glucose levels
Role of glucagon?
Increases blood glucose levels
Where is glycogen stored?
Muscle tissue and liver
Role of glycogen?
Converts to glucose in the liver to increase blood glucose levels
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