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the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye


the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters


a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening


the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina


the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information


retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight of well-lit conditions. These detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations


the central point of the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

bipolar cells

specialized cells which connect rods and cones to the ganglion cells of the optic nerve

ganglion cells

the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain

optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement

trichromatic theory

visual theory that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue


images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed

color blindness

a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors

opponent- process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision.

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye- no receptor cells are located here


retinal receptors that detect black, white and gray; necessary for peripheral vision and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

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