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Exam one chapter two
Terms in this set (11)
What is metabolism?
The use of energy for bodily processes, including all chemical changes • Metabolic processes involving thousands of chemical reactions can be further categorized as anabolism and catabolism.
What is anabolism?
• Uses energy to synthesize building blocks to produce new molecules
• Food intake sparks anabolism through biosynthetic pathways.
What is catabolism?
• The breakdown of molecules to generate useable energy
• Muscle cells further catabolize glucose units in metabolic pathways occurring in the cytosol and mitochondria of the cell to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to fuel muscle contraction
Chemical energy derived from food fuels these essential body functions:
• blood circulation
• body temperature maintenance
• oxygen delivery to tissues
• waste removal
• synthesis of new tissue
• repairing damaged or worn-out tissues
Energy extracted from food in three stages:
1. Digestion, absorption, and transportation of energy-yielding nutrients
2. Production of metabolites
3. Body's cells can use energy-producing metabolites to completely break down these compounds to a converted form of energy that the body can use
Some ATP is produced, but most of the food consumed is lost as?
heat-Thermal Effect of Food
The mitochondra conrain what?
(the powerhouse of the cell)
• Contains several metabolic pathways; the final stop in the energy transfer
what are the two highly specialized membranes in the mitochodria?
an outer membrane and a highly folded inner membranethat surrounds the mitochondrial matrix
ATP (adensine triphosphate)
• "Molecular unit of currency"
• Catalytic enzymes play key roles in the creation of ATP.
• Enzymes bind with coenzymes.
• Coenzyme molecules carry liberated electrons as a form of energy from fuel catabolism to the ETC for the synthesis of ATP.
Phosphagen Energy System
- Can be split into a creating component and a Pi component
- The additional Pi from the phosphocreatine compound used to resynthesize ADP into ATP
• Non-esssentialnitrogenous compoundthat exists primarily in skeletal muscle as PCr
• Produced within the body
• Obtained from eating meatandfish
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