What were the roots of the Progressive reformers? To what issues were they reacting?
Populism Prohibition Social Gospel and settlement-house movements
What are the four categories of Progressive reform?
1. Social 2. Moral 3. Economic 4. Political
List the four basic beliefs that all Progressive reformers had.
1. Government needed to be more accountable for citizens 2. Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests 3. Government should be given expanded powers to become more active in improving lives of citizens 4. Government should be more efficient and less corrupt- handle and expand role
Journalists who exposed wrongdoings in business and politics. They were writers, photographers, journalists ect. They published their works in magazines, books and photographs that brought social issues to the attention of the American public
worked to create inexpensive residential hotels for working women, establish homes for elderly and unmarried mother, programs of vocational instruction and physical fitness
YWCA and The Girls' Friendly Societies
What contribution did the Social Gospel movement make to progressivism
Worked for the abolition of child labor and help the poor, established YWCA and The Girls' Friendly Societies
Identify the main points of the philosophy of the Social Gospel movement.
Abolition of child labor, help the poor, establish housing for poor/elderly/unmarried mothers women
Why did so many upper- and middle-class women become progressives?
bored by being typical woman, decided to do settlement work (gave young, educated women a way to satisfy their powerful desire to connect with the real world.)
a feminist ideal that rferred to the growth in education, independent women in the US, now that they had some rights to own land, work etc. they wanted more (suffrage..) WE Def. need to ask about this one to ms. drake on thurs. im making a list of things to go over
How did Progressives use leisure activities to promote their ideas?
Machines created ties to entertainment to persuade constituents for support, financially or in other ways (They would offer free tickets to baseball games or theatre, possibly picnics or even prostitutes)
How did Progressives help standardized education?
Abandon autocratic classrooms (students are taught through memorization, recitation, and harsh discipline) Used Pragmatism.
Why did the Progressive movement concentrate on Immigration?
the social issues after the civil war were are directly related to immigrants who caused them and were affected by them (I think bc they were a huge part of reform, the caring middlecalss wanted to help them , they hull house was created, getting them on their feet and out of poverty, remember, the hull house was connected to the social gospel which was religous and the women were all "we have to save them hethens" so what better way to do it than to focus on the poor immigrants in our country? Again, adding this to the list to ask ms. Drake) they were easily persuaded by machines
Why did the Progressive movement concentrate on sanitation and urbanization?
causing disease and inhuman working conditions needed to be exposed to the public
a theory that different things that make up a community, should be run by the people in that community
kind of reforms socialists wanted:
child labor/welfare reform education reform
Social reform, she exposed conditions of sweatshops, limiting women to an eight hour workday and made only children of age 14 and above allowed to work, established the NY Child labor Committee.
Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
What happened at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company on March 25, 1911? How did this event help improve the working conditions of workers?
workers trapped and burned alive in factory fire (doors were locked) lead to a legislation of better and more factory safety standards
the various social services provided by a state for the benefit of its citizens
social welfare programs
have voters propose legislation directly
submit a legislative measure to a vote by the general public
to elect people into office
to take a measure or politician out of office
Was a Senator of Wisconsin that came up with the ideas of direct primaries, tax reform, regulation of railroad rates, and limits on campaign expenditures. Wisconsin (a.k.a "The Laboratory of Democracy") was the place where there was a lot of political experiments being conducted.
Robert La Follette
What were some of the progressive reforms pushed by organized labor?
Child labor laws Workmen's compensation limitation on working hours for women
embraced two guiding principles, fighting like the AFL for better wages, hours, and conditions, but also promoting an eventual, permanent solution to the problems of strikes, injunctions, bull pens, and unionscabbing.
ruled that a law setting maximum working hours for bakers was unconstitutional.
Lochner vs. New York
set a maximum ten hours a day for women employed in factories and laundries
Muller vs. Oregon
How did President T. Roosevelt resolve the United Mine Workers strike in the coal industry?
President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. (The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.)
How did companies use the concept of "holding companies" to create a monopoly?
By making suppliers of goods or services appear to be independent from one another when in fact they were not. (Holding companies allow other companies expand their influence and invest money into certain fields without having to manage stocks themselves. For the Industry, they allow companies that are on the market to get more capital quicker.)
Why was the Department of Labor created in 1912?
"to foster, promote and develop the welfare of working people, to improve their working conditions, and to advance their opportunities for profitable employment."
Building on John Dewey's philosophy of pragmatism, they stress problem-solving skills, hands-on learning, using a child's interests as the basis for developing a curriculum, self-discipline, and flexible methods.