24 terms

Biology Chapter 18 Vocabulary

24 words, page 464.
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Taxonomy
The field of science in which scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name.
Binomial Nomenclature
A two-word naming system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.
Genus
A group of closely related species.
Taxon
A taxonomic category.
Family
A taxonomic category that is composed of genera that share many characteristics.
Order
A broad taxonomic category composed of similar families.
Class
A taxonomic category that is composed of similar orders.
Phylum
A taxonomic group that is composed of several different classes, and includes many different organisms that nevertheless share important characteristics.
Kingdom
The largest and most inclusive taxonomic category, with Animalia and Plantae being the two main kingdoms.
Phylogeny
Evolutionary relationships among organisms.
Evolutionary Classification
The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history.
Derived Character
Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members.
Cladogram
A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.
Molecular Clock
A model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently.
Domain
A more inclusive taxonomic category than any other - larger than a kingdom.
Bacteria
A domain whose members are unicellular and prokaryotic organisms.
Eubacteria
The kingdom that the domain Bacteria corresponds to.
Archaea
A domain whose members are unicellular and prokaryotic organisms that live in some of the most extreme environments.
Archaebacteria
The kingdom to which the domain Archaea corresponds.
Eukarya
A domain which consists of all organisms that have a nucleus.
Protista
The kingdom which consists of eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi.
Fungi
The kingdom which consists of heterotrophs that feed on dead or decaying organic matter.
Plantae
The kingdom which consists of multicellular organisms that carry.
Animalia
The kingdom which consists of multicellular and heterotrophic organisms.