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26 terms

psychology ch. 5

STUDY
PLAY
scheme
an organized pattern of functioning that adapts and changes during development
assimilation
the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
accommodation
changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new sitmuli or events
sensorimotor stage (or cognitive development)
piaget's initial major stage of cognitive development, which can be broken down into six substages
goal-directed behavior
behavior in which several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem
object permanence
the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannot be seen
mental representation
an internal image of a past event or object
deferred imitation
an act in which a person which is no longer present is imitated by children who have witnessed a similar act
information-processing approach
the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
memory
the process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved
infantile amnesia
the lack of memory for experiences prior to 3 years of age
developmental quotient
an overall developmental score that lates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior,and personal-social
bayley scales of infant development
a measure that evaluates an infant's development fron 2 to 42 months
language
the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, whic provides the basis for communication
babbling
making speechlike but meaningless sounds
holophrases
one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used
telegraphic speech
speech in which words not critical to the message are left out
underextension
the overly restrictive use of words, common among children just mastering spoken language
overextension
the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning
referential style
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to label objects
expressive style
a style of language use in which language is used primarily to express feelings and needs about oneself and others
learning theory approach
the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning
nativist approach
the theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development
universal grammar
noam chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure
language-acquisition device
a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language
infant-directed speech
a type of speech directed toward infants, characterized by short, simple sentences