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what is the surface of the sun called?

the photosphere

what on the sun creates auroras on earth?

charged particles travel down the magnetic field lines and interact with ions

what is the relationship between auroroas and the sunspot cycle?

sunspots are created by magnetic field disturbances which were interacted with ions to create auroras

which layer of the sun is seen as a thin, red rim during a solar eclipse?


what feature of the sun has huge cloudlike arches?


what is solar wind?

streams of protons and electrons that shoot out from the corona and travel at high speeds

how many years between two solar maximums?


how many years between two solar minimums?


what process feuls the sun and how does it work?

hydrogen fuses to form helium and the missing mass is given off as energy

how much longer will the sun stay in its present stable state?

5-6 billion years

what is the temperature of the photosphere compared to the temperature of the corona?

corona- 1 million k
photosphere-6000 k

why do granules look the way they do?

bright-rising gas
dark-sinking gas

why do sunspots appear dark?

they are cooler than the surface of the earth

which color stars have the highest surface temperature?


what color stars have the lowest surface temperature?


a blue star compared to our sun is...


a red star compared to our sun is...


what is a basic method for measuring distance to stars? define it

parallax-slight shift in the apparent position of a nearby star due to the motion of the orbital motion of the earth

what is the first stage in the evolution of a star?

form in huge clouds and dust

name three factors that affect the apparent brightness of a star when seen from earth

distance temperature size

what is the evolutionary path for a low mass star?

nebula, protostar, main sequence, white dwarf, black dwarf

what is the evolutionary path for a medium mass star?

nebula protostar main sequence red giant planetary nebula white dwarf black dwarf

what is the evolutionary path of a large mass star?

nebula protostar main sequence red supergiant supernova explosion neutron star/blackhole

what do astronomers look for when they are looking for black holes?

evidence of matter being rapidly swept into regions of apparent nothingness

what is a pulsar?

a source that radiates short bursts or pulses of radio energy

Possibly the most cataclysmic event to occur in nature is _______

hydrogen burning

Streams of protons and electrons emitted from the Sun produce ________.

solar wind

The Sun belongs to this class of stars.

main sequence stars

The outermost layer of the Sun is called the ________.

the corona

The most dense stars (or star remnants) known to exist are _______

black holes

The point in stellar evolution when a star has used up all its fuel and is radiating away its remaining thermal energy as light is the ________ stage.

white dwarf

Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects the apparent brightness of a star as seen from Earth?

the age of the star

The most conspicuous features on the surface of the Sun are dark areas called ________.


The discovery that the universe appears to be expanding led to a widely accepted theory called ___

the big bang

this property of a star can be determined from its color

surface temperature

Based on the observed red shifts in the spectral lines of distant galaxies, astronomers conclude that ________.

the universe is expanding

The most explosive events to occur on the Sun are ________.

solar flares/cmes

A star in which light cannot escape because of the immense gravitational pull at its surface is called a ________

black hole

Star A is farther away from Earth than Star B. Both stars have the same absolute magnitude. Which of the following is true about their apparent magnitudes?

star b will have a greater apparent magnitude

The final stage in the evolution of the most massive stars is a ________.

black hole

During periods of high solar activity, huge cloudlike structures that appear as great arches extending from the Sun are often produced. These solar features are called ________.


One way that scientists look for Black Holes is by looking for:

x ray emissions

the final stage for a star which is as massive as the sun is

black dwarf

The lowermost part of the sun's atmosphere that is a thin, red rim seen around the sun during a total solar eclipse is the


The amount of energy released during a nuclear reaction was established by ____

albert einstein

Which one of the objects listed below has the largest size?


When a main-sequence star has exhausted the fuel in the inner region, it becomes a ________.

red giant

The layer of the Sun that radiates most of the light that reaches Earth is called the ________.


What spectrum type do we see if we are looking at the photosphere?


These stars are produced during a supernova event.

black hole

A first magnitude star is ________ times brighter than a 5th magnitude star.


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