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On the eve of the French Revolution, France was the wealthiest, most influential, and most populous nation in Europe. Its population was approximately:
a. 100 million
b. 50 million
c. 25 million
d. 15 million
e. 10 million

c. 25 million

The immediate cause of the outbreak of revolution in 1789 was:
a. grinding poverty among all classes of society
b. government oppression
c. the ideas of the philosophes
d. the insensitivity of Marie Antoinette
e. the government's financial crisis

e. the government's financial crisis

Although the Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 is celebrated as the "start of the French Revolution," the first act of revolution may have been the resolve of the Third Estate to write a constitution. It is of:
a. the first session of the Estates General
b. the swearing of the Tennis Court Oath
c. the storming of the Tuileries
d. the forming of the National Assembly
e. the public proclamation of the Declaration of the Rights of man

b. the swearing of the Tennis Court Oath

What is the correct chronological order of the following:
convening of the Estates General
the Declaration of the Rights of Man
formation of the National Assembly
the Tennis Court Oath

convening of the Estates General, formation of the National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Many historians divide the French Revolution into these three distinct stages:
a. "The Great Fear," "The Reign of Terror," and "The Directory"
b. The Monarchy, the Republic, the Empire
c. The radical, the moderate, and the reactionary stages
d. The moderate, the radical, and the reactionary stages
e. The storming of the Bastille, of the Tuileries, of the National Convention

d. The moderate, the radical, and the reactionary stages

WHich of the following alienated the most French Catholic clerics and believers?
a. the provision of freedom of religion in the Declaration of the Rights of Man
b. the determination of various revolutionary governments to collect taxes from the First Estate
c. the seizure of church lands
d. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
e. the abolition of monasteries

d. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Arrange the following governments during the Revolution in correct chronological order:
National Assembly
National Convention

National Assembly, National Convention, Directory, Consulate

By the standards of the 20th century, the slaughter of French citizens during the Reign of Terror was relatively small in number. It claimed approximately how many victims?
a. 4 million
b. 1 million
c. 400,000
d. 40,000
e. 4,000

d. 40,000

All of the following are accurate EXCEPT:
a. France had a nonrepresentative government before the French Revolution as well as afterward
b. the Revolution destroyed the vestiges of manorialism
c. the Revolution failed to end the legal inequities between the classes
d. the Revolution influenced French society to measure status by ability rather than birth
e. the ideals of the French Revolution spread throughout Europe

c. the Revolution failed to end the legal inequities between the classes

Which of the following was NOT considered a positive accomplishment of Napoleon?
a. The Concordat of 1801
b. his use of nepotism in government
c. his use of the merit system in government
d. his Code Napoleon
e. his restructuring of the educational system

b. his use of nepotism in government

Napoleon's purpose in instituting the Continental System was to:
a. defeat England through the economic war
b. consolidate the separate states of Germany
c. unify Italy
d. create a unified Europe under the leadership of France
e. punish Russia for his ill-fated invasion

a. defeat England through economic war

Napoleon helped make the French Revolution an international movement in the areas he conquered:
a. by imposing a universal currency based on the French franc
b. by the brutal suppression of guerrilla resistance
c. by abolishing feudalism and manorialism
d. by encouraging French as the universal language
e. by placing his relatives on the thrones

c. by abolishing feudalism and manorialism

The Congress of Vienna hoped to restore the European balance of power after the War of the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars by:
a. surrounding France with strong states
b. unifying all of Germany
c. reestablishing the Holy Roman Empire
d. unifying Italy
e. giving Russia the left bank of the Rhine

a. surrounding France with strong states

Who was the man whose ideas and aims dominated the Congress of Vienna and after whom the age of reaction, from the fall of Napoleon to the Revolutions of 1848, is named?
a. Castlereagh
b. Metternich
c. Alexander I
d. Talleyrand
e. Hardenburg

b. Metternich

The War of Jenkins Ear

The Treaty of Utrecht ended War of Spanish Succession
-England gained strait of Gibraltar
-England could trade with Spanish once a year at Portobello
-Spanish colonists wanted more of these goods, English smuggled them in
1731: The Spanish board the ship of Jenkins, Spanish officer cut off Jenkins' ear
1738: Parliament talking about Spanish atrocities, Jenkins walks in with ear, England went to war with Spain

Robert Jenkins

mariner whose ear started the War of Jenkins Ear

Maria Theresa

empress of Austria
-Pragmatic Sanction enabled her to come to the throne
Frederick invades Austria, Silicia because a woman was o the throne, and thought he could overtake her, wanted iron for his army
-went around and talked to all her subjects
-kept Austria together
-proved she was a worthy leader

Frederick the Great

invaded Austria, Silicia because a woman was on the throne, and thought he could overtake her, wanted iron for his army

The War of Austrian Succession

A conflict that arose when Frederick II of Prussia wanted to tke the Austrian Land of Silesia from Queen Maria Theresa of Austria

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

-For a long time, French and Austrians = enemies
-France and Austria = allies
-Marie Antoinette betrothed to Louis
-Prussians and England become friends

The Seven Years' War

-Frederick the Great = invaded Sazony
-not much happened in Europe, the real war was fought in N.A.
-William Pitt: made the French think England was the real threat, and then sent British Army to N.A.
-British and Indians vs. France and Indians
-British = victorious
-Treaty of Paris in 1763
-Britain gains control over more Carribbean islands
1763: Britain = larger colonial empire than anyone else

The French and Indian War

also known as the Seven Years' War in Europe. see Seven Years' War

William Pitt and the Elder

made the French think England was the real threat, then sent the British army to North America

The Proclamation of 1763

colonists could not go west of Appalachian mountains
-that area was for their Indian Allies
-violated all the time (i.e. Daniel Boone)

The Sugar Act

stopped colonists from buying smuggled sugar
-lowered prices of sugar

The Quartering Act of 1765

-cut the price of housing soldiers, the colonists would board them instead
-colonists thought they didn't have to because of the Bill of Rights
-colonists were angry at this

The Stamp Act of 1765

-all paper products needed this
-pay money for these
-This brought all the colonists together b/c they all disliked it
-held the ______ ________ congress
-Patrick Henry said the famous "Taxation without Representation"
-Drew up the Declaration of Rights and Grievances

The Declaration of Rights and Grievances

-drew this up at the stamp act congress
-king didn't pay attention
-colonists boycotted British clubs, Sons of Liberty formed
-Stamp Act repealed a year later
-not a single stamp sold

The Townshend Acts

-tried to create revenues to pay governors and judges, people didn't take so kindly to these

The Boston Massacre

-5 people killed by British troops

The Boston Tea Party

-Parliament passed new tea laws which lowered the price of tea
-dumped tea into the harbor, upset the British

The Intolerable Acts

-in response to the Boston Tea Party
-closed the port of Boston
-wanted them to pay for the tea

Lexington and Concord

-April 1775, first shots
-colonists fighting for revolt

The Declaration of Independence

-July 4, 1776
-Thomas Jefferson = principal author
-independence from England

The U.S. Constitution

-written by congress
-ideas came from the Enlightenment

The Old Regime

-social working of France before the revolution
-peasants and nobles = main groups

The Estates of France

1) clergy- very rich, 10% of all France's lands
-upper clergy came from noble classes
-lower clergy = poor commoners
2) nobility- 2% of population, 20% of all France's lands
-held all positions of power
3) everyone else: 98% of population
-urban bourgeoisie: middle class, merchants, bankers, etc.
-urban lower classes- butchers, bakers, candlestick makers, sans-culottes (translates to "without breeches")
-peasants = 80% of population
-almost guaranteed food
-almost half of income in taxes

Louis XVI

-restores power of parlements
-employs swiss banker as chancellor- Jacques Necker
1780s: Jacques Necker told this person that if he erased debt from the American Revolution, there would be a surplus of money for the French government and that he was spending too much money on nobles at Versailles
-nobles get upset when they hear this
-Necker resigned after realizing this person wasn't going to do anything about this
De Calonne sets up a meeting with the ASSEMBLY OF NOTABLES
-told them they needed to pay taxes, but the nobles refused
-told them that if the Estates-General which hadn't met since the 1600s
-this person didn't want to give up this power, and fired De Calonne
-hired De Brienne as minister of finance
-a noble from the Assembly of Notables
-started telling the other nobles they need to pay land tax
-nobles again refuse to do this

Cahiers de Doleances


Marie Antoinette

-betrothed to King Louis XVI in the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
-most hated person in all of France


was at the American Revolution
carried those ideas into the French Revolution
leader of national guard

The Estates General

the nobles wanted the king to convene this in order to tax them
deadlock in which nothing was happening
turned into the national assembly because everyone was mad at the king

the Abbe Sieyes




The National Assembly

became known as this... all seated together.
all three estates became angry when Louis XVI told the third estate to stop meeting...

The Tennis Court Oath

all of the estates took this pledge, wanted to sit together till they had a Constitution
mad at Louis XVI for telling the third estate to stop meeting

The Bastille

King reformed his army, people of paris = very concerned
July 14, 1789, a parisian mob stormed this building
-thought this had weapons and political prisons
-people of Paris take this building with force
-98 people died
-some weapons, but not a lot, seven prisoners that were actually murderers, rapists, etc.


declared by Austria and Prussia- If something happens to the Royal family, they'd attack


political party within French legislature, had all the control, a sect of the Girdonists
-afraid of counter-revolutionaries
-afraid of nobles who had fled (emigres)
ordered all emigres to return to France
-If didn't, land would be confiscating
-wanted to keep an eye on them

the First Coalition

France declares war on Austrians b/c they're scared of Austria and the declaration of Pillintz

the Legislative Assembly

the legislative branch of the French government

The National Convention

the legislative branch from the National Assembly to the Legislative Assembly, succeeded by the Directory


a political party of the french legislative assembly
jacobins = a sect of this political party

the Mountain

gained control within the legislative assembly because they were in touch with the sans-culottes


Leader of the Committee of Public Safety
becomes the dictator of France
leader of the reign of terror


leader of the Paris communes
fought of the rights of the people and loved by the people


concerned about counter-revolutionaries

the Directory

form of government after Robespierre
comprised of five directors

the Committee of Public Safety

the executive committee of the legislative assembly
planned the economy, fixed prices, rationed so everyone had enough
took over factories
instituted a draft for the army

the Terror

accused people of being counter-revolutionary, guillotined them
40,000 people died

the guillotine

new, more humane way of killing people

the Thermidorian Reaction

white terror
-got back at people who caused so much death
-things go sort of back to normal
The Directory
-legislative: 2 houses
-executive: the Directory
-more stable gov't



The Napoleonic Code

-equality of all male citizens before the law
-absolute security of wealth and private property
-Bank of France
-new economic order

the Concordat of 1801

agreement with Pope Pius VII
pope gained for French Catholics the right to practice their religion freely
Napoleon gained political power

The Wars of Napoleon

French defeated Austrians, by 1806, had much of the HRE, named himself the Protector of the confederation
Dec. 2, 1804, became emperor of France

The Russian Campaign

turning point from success to failure
lost 100000 of 60000 person army


Napoleon exiled to here, allowed a 1000 person army


against Duke of Wellington
Prussians marching towards battlefield, Napoleon didn't know this
Wellington accurately predicted almost every move of Napoleon
led impeial guard out ofr last stand
guard retreats
Wellington won
napoleon and guard went to Paris

St. Helena

exiled here until death, buried in the Church of the Dome

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