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Business Exam 1
Terms in this set (87)
What are information systems composed of? (5 things)
Hardware, software, data, procedures, people
IPO Model contains what 4 things?
Input, processing, output, storage
_________ the function that gathers data from the environment and gets it into the computer. The environment may include human beings as well as other computers.
_______________ any manipulations necessary to turn data into information. Processing might be a calculation such as addition or subtraction or a comparison such as equals or greater than. It could also be sorting or ordering the data.
___________ what we do with our data/information when its in the computer and not being input, processed, or output.
_____________ the physical components that do much of the work. Things that you can hold. Ex. mouse, monitor, CPV, and hard drive. Note: It is not the data stored in these devices.
____________ the instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Ex. Mac O/S
software is also called ______________ or applications.
________ the facts and figures that are processed into information.
_________ human components that do work that hardware cannot.
______________ instructions that tell the people what to do or the human instructions
Companies try to improve chances of success by following a _______________.
_________________ is just a standard process. It includes detailed steps, common forms and other tools.
What is the systems development lifecycle or SDLC?
a common methodology that can help a team to implement a successful new information system or improve and existing IS.
What are the 5 steps in SDLC (in order)
The phases of SDLC has to be done in ____________ order.
The phases are __________ meaning some components move to the next step while some components stay in the previous step.
The SDLC is iterative because you can
return to a phase at any point.
The purpose of the planning phase is to ask what question?
Is this project worthwhile/feasible?
There are 5 feasible tests for the planning phase. If the feasibility test is not passed then the project
should not go forward/should be ceased.
Once it is decided that a successful project is feasible, a ____________ _________ is assembled. Then the goals and scopes of the project are defined.
The final outcome of the planning phase if the ____________ _________- the document that identifies goals, scope, budget, and schedule including tasks to be performed and who is responsible for each task.
The analysis phase attempts to answer the question __________?
In the analysis phase we must fully understand the existing information system. This understanding, also called ______________________ _________________ is developed through surveys, interviews, focus groups and observations.
_______________ ______________ specify what the solution must accomplish without specifying how.
The design phase answers the question ________?
The design phase begins with a _______________________ session to identify possible ways to achieve the requirements stated in the logical models.
In the design phase once the best solution alternative is selected _____________ _____________ should be created.
Physical models are essentially ___________ __________ of the solution.
The implementation is the ____________ it phrase.
In the implementation phase physical models are turned into real _______________ systems.
What are the four ways that you can switch from the old IS to the new IS?
Plunge method, parallel method, phased method, and pilot method.
The ____________ method essentially turns the old system off one day and turns the new system on the next day.
The ____________ method is the most risky method because it leaves no fallback plan if a major error is discovered in the new system.
The ______________ method is the safest method because it runs both the old and new systems simultaneously until confidence has been stablished in the new system.
The ___________ method is the most costly method because each employee must perform their system related tasks twice.
The ___________ method takes a large project and breaks it into smaller pieces so that only one part of the project solution is implemented at a time.
The ____________ method implements the entire project for only a portion of the company. For example, if several offices or stores operate the same way, one of those offices might move to the new system while all other offices remain on the old system.
The _________________ phase begins when the old information is turned off. It is simply using the system, printing reports, creating backups of data, optimizing speed and security settings as well as answering user questions.
Occasionally, small _____________ or bugs will be found during the Maintenance phase. In such cases a mini SDLC will be performed to plan the bug fix.
A ____________ is a model that more closely resembles the finished product rather than a logical or physical model used by the traditional SDLC.
_________ are the raw facts that are input into an information system.
Data are __________________ in some way to produce information.
________________ is the output of information systems and must be useful to the decision for which it was granted.
To determine if an output is information, you can analyze the output based on what three dimensions?
Content, time, and form
_________________ refers to the data that was used to generate the output.
_______________ moves work from human side to computer side.
_________ is what goes into an IS or what is processed.
___________________ is processed or aggregated Data and data presented in a meaningful context. It is the end result of processed data, something you can make a decision off of.
If it is not helpful or useful then it is not
In order to decide if the data is considered information or not what do you have to know?
the decision or question it is supposed to address
What are the steps for the information literacy process?
- Define what information is needed
- Define what Data is needed
- Know how and where to obtain data
- define what processes are needed to turn data into information
- understand the meaning of information
- act appropriately based on the information (use info legally and ethically)
Misrepresenting Data is when..
They make the numbers look better
Fabricating Data is when...
they make up stuff
concealing information is when..
they are holding back information that should be shared
quality information that goes to the wrong user is
The strictest guideline for handling sensitive information is
Ethical and legal are not
___________ ______________ is the process of gaining more value from vast amounts of data that is collected
A block of data is just
a group of occupied cells
what two keys help you to move through the blocks of data?
the control or command key with the arrow keys
Control and shift down and right does what?
What does the green triangle mean?
that microsoft excel has stored the numeric value as text
If you store what looks like a number as text that means you can have what?
a leading zero on it
_______ is when you highlight the column pattern and drag the fill handle down.
__________ is when you highlight a single cell and drag the fill handle.
___________ ______________- everything to the top and the left of the selected cell will remain frozen.
What is the long tall theory?
That the less hit items profit can exceed the profit of the few hit items
What are the two ideas of simplicity?
1. each row and each column in a spreadsheet contain one idea meaning that every row and column may only describe one thing
2. Numbers to be compared should be aligned in columns
Past transpose is doing what?
it is making it simplisitc because it is turning data stored horizontally to vertically
_______ ___________- Data sets too large to process with traditional database technology
More data gives us a bigger _______.
you can download data straight from the _______ into an excel spreadsheet.
delimeters are what seperate what?
columns for import
text qualifiers are whatever is in the quotes
will be put in a column so it will skip over the comma
To preserve leading zeros you have to turn the data into a _______ data type.
__________ _________ spreadsheets are those spreadsheets that you intend to use only once.
_______________ spreadsheets are those spreadsheets that you use routinely.
Clarity: unity means
similar things to appear together
Clarity: delineation means
visually separating dissimilar items so not using a space or not physically separating them
Clarity: Order means
1. applying a logical order to rows and columns within unified groups
2. placing groups of cells containing similar ideas in a logical order within the worksheet
Clarity: Emphasis means
highlighting important components.
Descriptive analytics is
Diagnostic analytics is
why did it happen
Preditice analytics is
what will happen
prescriptive/disruptive analytics is
how can we make it work
There is an _______________ degree of difficulty of change because people are change resistant
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