51 terms


visual elements
line, shape, light, value, color, texture, space, time, and motion
refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movement, or specific culture or time period
the organization of the visual elements in a work of art
includes the materials used to make it, the style in which the artist work, the various formal elements that one uses, and the way the elements are organized in the composition
levels of content
subject matter, elements and composition, and underlying or symbolic meaning or themes
technique of building up paint so as to create layers (Head of St. Matthew by a Follower of Rembrandt)
kinetic sculptures
some of the most popular examples of this type of sculpture in the twentieth century are the mobiles of Alexander Calder
Hall of Bulls, Lascaux, France is a splendid example of Stone Age painting from the _____ period
Venus of Willendorf
in this small sculpture called ______________ prehistoric artist attempted to "capture" fertility
during the ______________ period in some areas of the world, crops were cultivated, metal implements were fashioned, and writing appeared (stone henge)
unlike the art of Mesopotamian civilizations the _________ art styles proceed from the three periods of Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms with very few variations
old kingdom egyptian
the ____________ work the Narmer Palette is an example of the conceptual approach to rendering the human figure
the ______________ period was when the wedge-shaped stylizations that stood as a rigid canon for the representation of the human body were replaced by curving lines and full-bodied forms
the _____ culture has had more far-reaching and lasting influence on art and civilization than any other culture
Greeks could not resist perfecting it according to the notion of ________ that is the representation of forms according to an accepted notion of beauty or perfection and in the realm of art it ruled the Greek mind
the standard for Greek architecture was established in the ______________
implied movement
Greek sculpture reached a height of perfection during the classical period with one of the most significant developments early in the period with the introduction of ___________ in figure sculpture
canon of proportions
Polykleitos's developed a __________ from which he would derive his 'ideal' figures
arch, concrete
two significant architectural achievements by the Romans, adopted from the Greeks
some of the most important and elaborate sculptural decoration is found in a semicircular space above the cathedral doors called the _________
instead of looking to nature for models the __________ artist sought stylistic inspiration in Roman works
hierarchical scaling
implies that humans are less significant than celestial beings and that animals are lower than humans
the theme of ________ sculpture took on a new mood from the Romanesque
known for a revival of Classical themes in art and literature, a return to the realistic depiction of nature through keen observation, and the revitalization of the Greek philosophy of humanism, in which human dignity, ideas, and capabilities are of central importance
genre painting
the marriage contract or double portrait, 'Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride', executed by the Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck is an example of this
classical style
in Albrecht Durer's 'Adam and Eve' one can see his admiration for ___________ by his emphasis of the idealized beauty of the human body in his Adam's young muscular body and Eve's substantial and well-rounded form
one-point linear perspective
in Masaccio's Holy Trinity one sees the use of ___________ as he creates the illusion of an extension of the architectural space in the church
an example of his work and his use of the _________ technique is Titian's Venus of Urbino.
motion and space were concerns of the ___________artist
architecture, sculpture, and painting
Bernini combined the arts of ________________ to archive the desired theatrical effect in the sculptural group The Ecstasy of St. Theresa for the chapel of the Cornaro family in the church of Saint Maria Della Vittoria
Velasquez's method of dissolving forms into small, roughly textured brushstrokes that re-create the play of light over surfaces would be the foundation of a movement called ________________ some two centuries later
implied motion and time
In the work The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens created _____________
art historians have recognized a more distinct style within the Baroque that began shortly after the dawn of the eighteenth century, this __________ style strayed further from classical principles than did the Baroque
Claude Monet
____________ was the most fervent follower of the Impressionist technique. The dissolution of surfaces and the separation of light into its spectral components remained central to his works of art (Rouen Cathedral)
united in their rebellion against Impressionism or what they considered an excessive concern for fleeting impressions and a disregard for traditional compositional elements. The __________ individual styles differed considerably and included such artist as Vincent van Goth, Paul Gaugiun, George Seurat, and Paul Cezanne
Seurat disciplined the free and fluent play of the Impressionist into a calculated arrangement of color based on scientific color theories. Seurat's technique is called ________, after his application of pigment in small dabs, or points, of pure color
Vincent Van Gogh
one of the most tragic and best known figures of the Postimpressionist was ___________. He felt painting was about the expression of the artist emotions and color was an important part of this
Paul Gauguin
the Postimpressionist __________ like van Gogh desired to express his emotion on canvas, but he relied on broad areas of intense color to transpose his innermost feelings to canvas
Edvard Munch
the central theme in the works of the Expressionist painter ________ pain and isolation. In The Scream he transforms the placid landscape into one that echoes in waves of high-pitched tone that emanates from the sunken head
a short-lived but influential art movement, __________ originated in Paris in 1905 with an exhibition at the Salon d'Automne. It included a number of loosely related individual styles, but together they choose their color and brushwork on the basis of its ability to express emotional qualities
Henri Matisse
____________ was part of the Fauves movement but his reputation exceeded the short lived movement. He developed a style characterized by surface pattern, strong, sinuous lines and brilliant colors as we can see in his work Red Room.
Wassily Kandinsky
one of the founders of the Der Blaue Reiter movement _____ believed in colors capacity to communicate the artists inmost psychological and spiritual concerns. In his essay "Concerning the Spiritual in Art" he examined the belief that artist must express the spirit and their innermost feelings by the orchestration of color, form, line, and space
________ can trace its heritage to the analytical and intellectual work of Cezanne. It built upon his geometrization of nature, abandonment of scientific perspective, rendering of multiple views, and emphasis on the two-dimensional canvas surface
analytic cubism
Pablo Picasso's 'Les Demoiselles d'Avignon' was a pivotal work of art in the development of Analytic Cubism with its extreme faceting of form, the use of multiple views, and the collapsing of space. These are all characteristics that were used to develop the style of _______
Umberto Buccioni
the futurist sculptor ___________ search to express dynamic movement reached a monumental expression with his work Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. The human form is expanded, interrupted, and broken in plane and contour as it seeks to convey the elusive, surging energy of motion that causes the form to disappear behind the blur of its motion
Georgia O' Keeffe
American painter ________ captured the essence of her subjects by simplifying their forms. In the case of her flower pictures as in the White Iris she magnified and abstracted the details of her botanical subjects
armory show
__________ was an assemblage of works by leading American artist and an impressive array of Europeans ranging from Goya and Delacroix, to Manet and the Impressionists; from Van Gogh and Gauguin, to Picasso and Kandinsky
in a spirit of rebellion and disillusionment during World War I, a group of artist established the ______ movement. It declared itself against art, responding to the absurdity of war and the insanity of a world that gave rise to it
_______ style followed Freud's theory of the unconscious and his free association technique for by passing the conscious mind (Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory)
abstract epxressionism
___________ is characterized by spontaneous execution, large gestural brushstrokes, abstract imagery, and fields of intense color
action painting
the art critic Harold Rosenberg coined the term ___________ in 1951 to describe the outcome of his painting process—a painting whose surface implied a strong sense of activity, as created by the signs of brushing, dipping, or splattering of paint