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Brain and Behavior chapter 3 (3.1)
Terms in this set (29)
central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Any nerve that does not belong to the CNS
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
somatic nervous system (SNS): general functions
Voluntary muscle control and Sensory Information to the CNS
autonomic nervous system (ANS): general functions
Controls involuntary muscles & glands (heart, intestines, etc.)
sympathetic nervous system: general functions
Expends energy Prepares for "fight or flight"
parasympathetic nervous system: general functions
helps to restore the body, build up energy & supplies needed in the future, and relax. So, its actions include increasing digestion in the stomach and intestines, slowing down the heart, and increasing the flow of secretions such as mucus or salivation.
directions within the nervous system (NS): diagrams in notes
Sensory enters dorsal/ exits ventral
dorsal root ganglion
Clusters of the bodies (soma) of sensory neurons are gathered together in an area outside the spinal cord itself.
gray vs white matter in spinal cord & cerebral cortex
central area of the spinal cord is shaped like an "H" and consists mostly of cell bodies (or, "gray matter"). The surrounding area consists mostly of insulated axons (or, "white matter") of the spinal cord.
OTC drugs and the ANS (e.g., cold/flu tablets)
Many "over-the-counter" (OTC) cold and flu medications target the ANS by blocking the parasympathetic and/or stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. Sinus flow is a parasympathetic activity. The side effects of OTC remedies often relate to their pro-sympathetic system activities, i.e., increasing heart rate while drying out the mouth
divisions of the brain: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
[major or general functions of each of the structures below]
Vital functions: breathing, heart rate, vomiting, coughing, sneezing. Connections through the cranial nerves (sensation & motor nerves for head) and parasympathetic nervous system.
Many nerves cross over from one side of the body to the other
--Control of movement & balance
--Time-related behaviors such as shifting attention for alternating sensory data (e.g., judging rhythm; playing the drums) Forms of simple learning & conditioning
--"cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome"
--overall intelligence is moderately correlated with the size of the cerebellum.
--Anterior: involved in motor and movement functions
--Posterior: involved in cognitive & affective (emotional) functions
reticular activating system
Ascending reticular formation: sends output to cerebral cortex and controls arousal and attention functions
Visual orientation and tracking of objects in space, e.g., a fly ball in baseball
Auditory orientation: where a sound is coming from, e.g., a car passing by a house
Dopamine-producing cells which permit smooth movement of the major muscles
-Deterioration of these cells leads to Parkinson's disease
The midlevel of the brain including the hypothalamus and amygdala, which is thought to be responsible for emotional processing. Aka the emotional control center. ??
sensory relay station to the cerebral cortex (except for smell)
regulation of motivated behaviors and internal homeostasis (e.g., temperature, thirst, hunger, sexuality) "Homeostasis" means that something is maintained in balance and, if it gets out of balance, it is brought back to balance.
beneath & connected to hypothalamus secretes hormones into the bloodstream
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
between thalamus and temporal lobe storage of new memories
ventricles of the brain
Filled with CSF
cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
shock absorber or cushion as well as a support for the weight of the brain.
CSF is formed by cells (the choroid plexus)
Blockage of the flow of CSF in brain of infant causing swelling of head and, usually, mental retardation.
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