356 terms

Lifespan Final Review Chapter 7 - 15

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concrete operational thought
According to Piaget, the stage of cognition that is characteristic of middle childhood is
ignore other types of intelligence
Sternberg and Gardner criticize standard IQ tests because the tests
Aptitude tests
[ ] measure(s) the potential to learn or master a particular skill or body of knowledge
IQ Tests
Intellectual aptitude is measured with
the product of both nature and nurture
Like obesity, asthma is
slow and steady
The rate of growth during middle childhood is
Trends in Math and Science Study
The international math and science assessment for fourth- and eighth-graders is called the
working
The component of the brain in which current conscious mental activity occurs is _____ memory
formal
Research on information processing suggests that the children are well advised to use _____ code when in academic settings
all of the above: culture, teachers, peers
Vygotsky believed that children learn from their
develop friends, activities, and skills
As children are developing an industrious self-concept, they may
They tend to misinterpret social situations
Which of the following is a characteristic of both aggressive-rejected and withdrawn-rejected children
neglected
A child who is ignored, but not shunned, by his or her peers is considered a(n) _____ child
The Heinz dilemma
Which exercise, developed by Kohlberg, is often used to test the moral reasoning of children?
Social Comparison
Fourth-grader Emma announces to her mother, "I am the fastest runner in my class but not in the entire school." Emma is engaging in
the parents pressure the children to maintain high achievement
According to your text, families who are very wealthy raise children with high rates of emotional problems. This is thought to be, in part, because
a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18 living in one household
A nuclear family consists of:
Social rules
Kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning emphasizes
nurtures peer relationships
School-age children thrive if the family
more of their friends
As friendships change during the school years, children are MOST likely to
the prefrontal cortex
What is the LAST part of the brain to mature?
three times
Bulimia nervosa is about _____ as common as anorexia nervosa
African
_____ Americans tend to experience puberty a few months earlier than European Americans.
four
MOST of the physical changes associated with puberty are completed in about _____ years
intuitive
What type of thought begins with a prior belief, heuristic, or common assumption, rather than a logical premise?
secondary education
The period after primary education and before tertiary education is called
entity
Geoffrey believes that he was born to be a certain "level of smart" and that any work he does will be wasted. "I was not born to be a brainiac," he tells his teacher, "so why should I study?" Geoffrey subscribes to the _____ theory of intelligence.
recognize their own vulnerability to dangerous situations
Adolescent egocentrism makes it difficult for adolescents to
a single test to determine success or failure
In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given
30
According to your textbook, as many as _____ percent of adolescents report that they have sent a sexual photograph, a practice called "sexting.
political
Erikson described four aspects of identity—the religious, the sexual, the vocational, and the
life-course-persistent offender
Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child's becoming a(n)
genetic vulnerability and hormonal factors
Two causes of depression in adolescence are
Rates of teen pregnancy are lower in European countries than in the United States
Which statement regarding teen pregnancy is TRUE?
Teens select friends whose values and interests they share
Which of the following statements about peer selection is TRUE
working 20 or more hours while attending high school impedes identity formation
Research suggests that:
experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion
During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused as to which role to adopt is said to be
more common in females than in males
Serious depression among adolescents is
marijuana
Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence is known to affect memory, language proficiency, and motivation?
at risk of participating in deviancy training
Teens who select peers who are doing drugs are
It helps people save money by living together.
Research finds that there is one decided advantage to cohabitation. What is it
work, marriage, and parenting occur later than they used to
In today's society
do much better both economically and intellectually
José is a college student whose parents immigrated to the United States from Nicaragua in 1990. Compared with other similar immigrant young adults who do not attend college, José is more likely to
sixth
Intimacy versus isolation is Erikson's _____ developmental crisis
plasticity
According to the text, which characteristic of developmental study is particularly relevant to understanding personality
All of these are correct: Ireland, Japan, Italy
In which of the following countries is cohabitation NOT the norm
allostasis
The dynamic body adjustment that, over time, affects overall physiology is called
say that they are not racially biased and their behavior shows no explicit bias
Many adults today
MOOC
A(n) _____ is a college course that is offered only online and typically has thousands of students enrolled
four drinks on one occasion
or women, binge drinking is defined as drinking more than
in college and graduate school
When is analytic intelligence usually valued
smoking cigarettes
What is the leading cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in the United States
focus on activities that are personally meaningful
People who are experts often elect to
90
In industrialized countries, approximately _____ percent of lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking
65
By age _____, most people will have lost about an inch of height
older, more experienced workers
According to the text, the BEST employees may be
a drop in testosterone levels seen in older men
Andropause refers to
IVF
What is the following common form of assisted reproductive technology has led to an estimated 5 million births
longitudinal research
According to your text, when _____ is/are conducted, testing the same people over and over as they age results in improved scores until late adulthood
All of these are correct: drug abuse, viruses, poor circulation
A lifestyle factor that makes brain loss more common is
allows creativity and productivity
Generativity needs are met when employment
neuroticism
Martha, a jail guard, is critical of everyone and does not like to travel because of anxiety. Her dominant personality trait is probably
divorce
Which life event would be more common among people who have high levels of the neuroticism trait
developing secure attachments
The greatest difficulty in parenting for non-biological parents (stepparents, adoptive parents, and foster parents)
friendships improve with age
A characteristic of adult friendships is that
African and Asian
In the United States, _____ are the MOST likely to divorce, and _____ are the LEAST likely to divorce.
neuroticism
Neuroimaging studies of the brains of people high in _____ found increased activity in the areas associated with stress, depression, threat, and punishment as compared with people with normal or lower levels of this trait
relocation becomes more difficult with age; many skills and types of knowledge required for a new job have not been learned by the older worker ; seniority becomes a disadvantage when one must seek a new job (all of these are correct)
From a developmental perspective, the fact that today's workers frequently change jobs is problematic for an older worker because
an improved marital relationship
An "empty nest" often results in:
love and work
According to Sigmund Freud, what do adults need in order to develop a healthy personality
differ on exactly when cognition declines
Research on late-adulthood cognitive decline has led scientists to
middle
During which stage of Alzheimer's disease are people able to care for themselves but still possibly engage in dangerous behaviors
Butler
Which geriatrician was responsible for coining the term "ageism"?
ecological validity
Research suggests that time of day and location should be considered when measuring memory. This is referred to as
Fronto-temporal neurocognitive disorder
_____ affects parts of the brain that regulate emotion, causing compassion and self-awareness to fade
calorie restriction
The practice of limiting dietary intake for the purpose of improving health and slowing down the aging process is called:
primary aging
The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older is referred to as
one-fourth
According to the National Center for Health Statistics (2014), cardiovascular deaths in 2013 were less than _____ the rate in 1960
14
Studies find that approximately _____ percent of all older adults have some form of neurocognitive disorder
sensory loss
An explanation for an older adult's perceiving the words "ear ants" for the word "interference" is
be unwilling to discard personal possessions
One way that older adults may attempt to hold on to their identity is to
aging in place
A preference of the elderly to remain in the same home and community, adjusting but not leaving when health fades, is called
self theories and stratification theories
Psychosocial development in late adulthood is BEST understood by examining:
Remote
_____ grandparents are those who are emotionally distant from their grandchildren and who are esteemed and respected elders who expect to receive help whenever they need it.
Family caregivers may feel resentment over their caregiving obligation
Which statement is TRUE about caregivers?
an insurance company
Which of the following entities or individuals would NOT be included in an integrated care model
Erikson
The MOST comprehensive self theory was developed by
prefer to live in their own home and stay in familiar surroundings
The "aging in place" phenomenon might suggest that many elderly persons do NOT move to Florida or Arizona because they
assisted living
The form of elder care that might provide an apartment for each person that allows furnishings and pets just as in a traditional home is called
They may remember a time when the situation was reversed.
A marriage might look quite unequal to an outsider, with one partner appearing to rely disproportionally on the support of the other partner. In many of these cases, however, the married couple does not mind this apparent inequity. Why
Surrogate parents
Juanita and Miguel are raising their two grandchildren after their mother was arrested and placed in prison. The father has never been involved with the children. Juanita and Miguel are
his wife
Sam is a frail elderly, married man. His caregiver is probably
living longer, being happier, and being wealthier
Martha and Rob, married for nearly 50 years and both in their 70s, can expect to differ from unmarried people by
involved
James and Sarah have three young grandchildren. Because both parents work, they take the grandchildren to doctor appointments, team practices, and pick them up from school, where they stay until their parents are off of work. James and Sarah would be considered _____ grandparents.
filial
Sue, 45, feels an obligation to take care of her aging parents by helping them around their house, going grocery shopping for them, and taking them to doctor appointments. This is called _____ responsibility
companinonate grandparents
Grandparents Lily and John enjoy taking their grandchildren on special outings and spoiling them with special gifts. They would be considered
Asian cultures
According to the text, filial devotion is particularly strong in _____ cultures
Karen is giving financial aid to her children
Karen is a healthy 70-year-old mother of two adult children. Which statement is most likely to be TRUE?
assisted living
Martha is looking for a home for her mother that combines privacy and independence yet still has medical supervision. This arrangement is called
developing mutual close friends
Carlos and Gia recently celebrated their 50-year anniversary. When asked about their secret to a successful and happy marriage, they suggested
to be frail
Martin, age 86, is no longer able to bathe and dress himself. He also needs help eating. He is considered
healthier, wealthier, and happier than unmarried people their age.
Married older adults are generally characterized as people who are:
negatively
In adulthood, age is _____ correlated with the size of an individual's social circle.
In long-term marriages, if one spouse is disabled and needs care, the spouse providing the care is likely to feel that the marriage is no longer equal in give-and-take
Eighty-four-year-old Leonard and Vivian have been married for 62 years. Vivian has been disabled with Alzheimer disease over the last two years. According to research cited in the text (Cornwell, 2012), which statement about the consequences of Leonard's responsibility to provide care for Vivian is likely to be FALSE?
IADLs
Owen is unable to manage his money, pay his bills, and operate household appliances. Owen also has problems keeping appointments or remembering to eat fruits and vegetables. Owen has problems with:
refers to the number of years the average newborn in a particular population is likely to live.
The average life expectancy
kissing and hugging
refers to the number of years the average newborn in a particular population is likely to live.

Nikolas and Andrea are both 85 years old, have been married for over 50 years, and are extremely happy in their long-lasting relationship. According to the text, which behavior(s) would likely predict their happiness?
Telomeres
are material at the ends of chromosomes in the cells; their length decreases with each cell duplication
Long-term
Gloria is 7 years old. Her _____ memory most likely has a fairly large capacity now that she is in middle childhood
Hey may experience loneliness
Damian is an 8-year-old boy who is obese. What is MOST apt to happen if he continues to be obese through adolescence?
8 years old (cannot classify younger than this)
Carter is given peas and green beans. When asked if he has more peas or vegetables, he responds, "I have more vegetables." Knowing this answer means that Carter is at least _____ years old.
the information-processing theory
The use of mental processes to search for information, analyze it, and then express the analysis of the information describes:
Instruction (learning from others)
Vygotsky viewed _____ as being crucial to children's development of skills and knowledge.
classification
Carly is given grapes and strawberries. When asked if she has more grapes or fruit, she responds, "I have more fruit." Carly is using the logical concept of:
automatization
A person who glances at a billboard and reads it without intending to do so displays:
obese
Brittney is 7 years old and is _____, which means that she is among the 18 percent of U.S. children her age with a BMI above the 95th percentile.
seriation
Franz, who is 5 years old, can count to 100, but he cannot correctly estimate where 22 is placed on a number line that starts at 0 and ends at 100. This means that Franz is having problems with:
middle-childhood
Erika is in elementary school. She is in the developmental period known as
growth of new structures in the brain
All of following contribute to a child's ability to increase his or her speed of thinking EXCEPT
using several parts of the brain that are interconnected
Humans do not have specific brain structures dedicated to reading. The brain compensates for this by:
overweight
Maggie is 9 years old and considered _____ because her BMI is above the 85th percentile for children in her age range
5 pounds
Marisa is 8. Based on information provided in the textbook, one can predict that she will be about _____ pound(s) heavier when she is 9.
metacognition
Jade is taking a short math quiz. By answering the easy questions first so that she can devote most of her time to the more difficult questions, Jade is displaying:
working memory
Lily arrives at Carmelita's house so they can walk to school. When Carmelita sees Lily's science notebook in her partially opened backpack, Carmelita rushes back into her house to retrieve her own notebook, which contains an assignment due that day. Carmelita's sensation upon seeing Lily's notebook became a perception. This triggered Carmelita's:
concrete operational
Edward is currently in second grade. According to Piaget, Edward is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
Yes. Children do acquire some basic reasoning skills during the concrete operational stage.
Some Western legal systems denote either 7 or 8 as the age at which a child attains reason. Is such a designation defensible from a Piagetian standpoint?
working
Seven-year-old Tijuana is studying her addition math facts. She repeats each addition problem with the answer several times and then tests herself. Tijuana is storing the answer in _____ memory, so it can be stored later into long-term memory.
long term
It is October, and Carol is writing a paper about her vacation from last summer for her English class. Which kind of memory is she relying on the MOST in order to do this project?
reduced accident rates
It is October, and Carol is writing a paper about her vacation from last summer for her English class. Which kind of memory is she relying on the MOST in order to do this project?
Automatization
aids every skill. Learning to speak a second language, to recite the multiplication tables, and to write one's name are difficult at first, but gradually become routine.
Equifinality
_____ is a basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes.
achievement; aptitude
Past performance is to future performance as _____ test is to _____ test
naturalistic
In 2006, Gardner added two intelligences to his framework: _____, which involves understanding nature, as in biology, zoology, or farming, and existential, which involves asking questions about life and death.
equifinality
Eight-year-old Randy has behavioral difficulty in school and is overly aggressive with the other children. His parents seem to ignore his problems and blame the school and the other children. His parents are convinced that Randy has attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. When they take him to a child psychiatrist, the psychiatrist is reluctant to give the diagnosis after observing the unhealthy interactions between the family members and between the parents. The psychiatrist's reluctance to give this diagnosis is based on the _____ related to the cause and diagnosis
Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.
Comorbidity
disorders
Developmental psychopathology links the study of typical development with the study of:
either private or parochial
Currently, Mercedes attends a(n) _____ school through the use of a voucher. However, the family is moving to a state in which vouchers are illegal. After the move, Mercedes will attend a public school.
African-American males have a lower dropout rate in charter schools than public schools.
According to the text, all of the following are true about charter schools EXCEPT that:
equifinality
When 7-year-old Debbie's mother was pregnant with Debbie, she had serious marital and financial problems. This may have led to a flood of stress hormones that affected Debbie while she was in the womb. After she was born, her mother developed an alcohol addiction and married an abusive man. Debbie has all of the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but her physician is cautious about giving this diagnosis because of the _____ related to the cause and diagnosis.
read a 100 words per minute
Jessica is 10 years old. She can MOST likely do each of the following EXCEPT:
The rate of single parenthood among African Americans in the United States is
The rate of single parenthood among African Americans in the United States is
Industry
Nine-year-old Charles can't wait to attend his first cartooning class. He is eager to learn and practice a new skill. Charles would be placed in Erikson's fourth psychosocial crisis, which is the crisis of _____ versus inferiority
skipped-generation
Sheri lives with her maternal grandmother. Sheri's father is incarcerated, and her mother is an active addict living on the streets. This example illustrates a(n) _____ family.
self-concept
Eleven-year-old Latonya had to give a speech to her class describing herself to her classmates. Latonya's speech is a description of her
Family-stress model
Dr. Strauss is looking at risk factors such as low income, divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment to see if they increase stress in families. What research model will Dr. Strauss MOST likely use?
relilience
_____ is a positive adaptation to stress. For example, if rejection by a parent leads a child to establish a closer relationship with another adult, perhaps a grandparent or the parent of a neighbor child, that is positive adaptation, not mere passive endurance.
feelings of inferiority
Daryl is 8 years old and he likes to do art projects at school. However, the projects he has completed so far haven't received good grades, and in several instances his friends have laughed at the things he has done. Based on Erikson's theory, Daryl might develop
According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her fourth psychosocial crisis, she will come to view herself as:
According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her fourth psychosocial crisis, she will come to view herself as:
lack of parental attention
Meagan is raised in a high-income family. According to the text, Meagan may exhibit all of the following developmental problems in high school due to parental pressure for her to excel EXCEPT
low income and high conflict
According to your text, two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation are:
self-esteem (self concept is cognitive)
Lydia is at the end of her middle childhood years. Her _____ will become more fragile during this time as self-criticism and self-consciousness rises.
skipped-generation; extended family
Isaiah lives with his paternal grandmother. His father is absent, and his mother is dead. Next door, Destiny lives with her mother and her maternal grandparents. Isaiah lives in a(n) _____ family. Destiny lives in a(n) _____.
the parents pressure the children to excel.
According to your text, families who are very wealthy raise children with high rates of emotional problems. This is thought to be, in part, because
Marisol, who can't wait to begin her first karate class
Identify the typical child in Erikson's fourth stage, the crisis of industry versus inferiority.
a mother's attitudes toward her twins is one factor that influences the twins' behavior.
Research on the temperaments of identical twins supports the finding that
high school more than primary school
Cyberbullying, which is using electronic means to harm another, is a particularly devastating form of relational bullying that is more common in:
informing his parents
Victims can sometimes stop a bully by doing all of the following EXCEPT:
postconventional
Jack registered as a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War. He believed that it is wrong to take the lives of others. If necessary, Jack would serve time in jail rather than participate in an armed conflict. Jack's reasoning reflects the _____ stage of moral development
conventional
Sixteen-year-old Michael begins growing a marijuana plant in a corner of his family's garden. His stepfather asks him to remove it because it is illegal. In Kohlberg's terms, Michael's stepfather is demonstrating _____ reasoning.
aggressive-rejected
Evan is shunned by his peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior. Evan's behavior suggests that he is a(n) _____ child.
withdrawn-rejected
A child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior is referred to as:
provocative
A bully-victim, who is also called a _____ victim, is someone who strikes back ineffectively and who is attacked as well.
social contract
Because Iris thinks that it is moral to break the law in some circumstances, Kohlberg would place her moral reasoning at the:
social contract
Justin takes towels from his hotel rooms when on vacation and feels it is okay because no one is hurt by it, but he does not feel it is okay to go over the speed limit when driving because speeding could result in an accident. Kohlberg would place Justin's moral reasoning at the _____ stage because he thinks that it is morally okay to break the law in some circumstances.
seek punishment rather than repair damage
Dee is a 9-year-old girl. According to the text, what is Dee MOST likely to do immediately after an initial punitive response?
Kohlberg's
A negative aspect of _____ approach is that he did not seem to recognize that, although children's moral values differ from those of adults, they may be equally valid.
child culture
The saying "Step on a crack and you will break your mother's back" is an example of:
wanting to be similar to their peers
A group of 6- to 11-year-olds spent summer camp together. Even though each child came from different counties and had different interests, by the end of the camp they valued
appears to have stopped in developed nations.
Bill lives in the United States and is the same height as his father and grandfather. The same is true for many other generations of families. The secular trend of each generation growing taller:
2
"I'm fat," says 17-year-old Keli to her boyfriend, who is also 17 years old. There is some truth to Keli's statement because the average 17-year-old girl has _____ times the percentage of body fat as a 17-year-old boy.
hypothalamus
In the brain, the pituitary gland and a structure called the _____ regulate hormones that affect stress, appetite, and sleep.
gonads
What is another name for the sex glands?
12 years, 4 months
The current average age of menarche among well-nourished girls is
11 years, 6 moths
Peak height spurt for girls
10 years, 8 months is the approximate age when pubic hairs begin to appear during puberty for girls.
Pubic hair begins to appear at what age
13 years is the approximate age when the first ovulation occurs during puberty for girls.
First ovulation for girls
phase-delayed sleep-wake patterns
According to the text, teenagers are likely to experience sleep deprivation as a consequence of their
natural rhythms
Jay closed his eyes when he accidentally looked into the sun and covered his ears when he heard a loud noise. What helped Jay's brain respond to the environment?
results in earlier puberty
Living in a stressful environment has been found to:
Stress increases the hormones that start puberty.
Julie is involved in many activities, including cheerleading, gymnastics, and a part-time job. Because of her stress, she started puberty early. Which is the BEST reason for this change?
early maturation
Shane, a fifth grader, drinks his parents' liquor when they are not home and yells at family members when he does not get his way. Shane's behavior is MOST likely due to his
alert in the morning and sleepy in the pm
Bernie is an adult. Unlike teens, Bernie's brain is naturally
torso
Matthew is a fully formed adolescent boy. The _____ was/were the last part(s) of Matthew's body to develop.
his fingers and toes lengthen
Josias is going through a growth spurt. The FIRST observable evidence will likely be that:
His lymphoid system (tonsils and adenoids) decreases in size.
Jorge has been very healthy during adolescence. Why is he LESS susceptible to respiratory ailments?
testes
As Charles was drying himself off after taking a shower, he noticed that his _____ had grown, which is the first visible sign of puberty in boys.
incremental theory of intelligence
Josh pays attention and participates in class, studies hard, and always completes his homework. Josh MOST likely believes in the _____ approach to intelligence.
intuitive
Roy is late for class and realizes that he left his cell phone at home. He needs to make a fast decision. He will MOST likely rely on _____ thought to inform his decision
lack of connections to his teachers
Jamal is struggling academically since he began middle school. He misses being in a single room and doesn't like going to different classrooms for every subject. Jamal is MOST likely suffering due to
feeling like a failure
Reggie has convinced himself that middle school is stupid and therefore not worth his time. His avoidance of any effort towards his schoolwork is MOST likely protecting Reggie from:
amygdala is mature.
Steven's parents are frustrated by his wild emotional behavior at home. Steven's counselor explains that his behavior will continue until his:
revel in attention and avoid scrutiny.
The imaginary audience leads a teenager to
PISA
Bryn is taking an international exam aimed at assessing the type of thinking needed in adult life. She is MOST likely taking the _____ exam.
Tertiary
Betsy is starting college in the fall. This new phase of her schooling is called _____ education
the personal fable
Fifteen-year-old Jordan believes that she is destined for greatness. She knows that she is going to be the first female president of the United States and does not listen to anyone who tells her that she should be "more realistic" in her goals. Jordan's feelings about her future are an example of:
Increase his isolation
Jay is a 16-year-old European American gay male living in rural Alaska. The Internet could be a way that Jay could do all of the following EXCEPT:
A hallmark of hypothetical thought is the ability to think of that which is not present
Which statement about hypothetical thought is NOT true?
hypothetical
Elle loves to think about possibilities and often asks "what if" questions. She is MOST likely engaging in _____ thought
formal operation
Randy is in the stage of _____ thought if his thinking is no longer dependent on concrete experiences and he can understand more abstract concepts.
intuitive
Eric listens to popular music because it makes him feel like dancing. This rationale demonstrates that Eric is making decisions using _____ thought
the entity theory of intelligence
Brian feels that, no matter what he does, he will not be good at math because he was born without strong math skills. Brian is demonstrating _____, which MOST likely will reduce his ability to learn.
adolescent egocentrism
Fourteen-year-old Aisha spends at least two hours per night talking to her best friend, Kylie, on the phone. They often go over the details of the day, what everyone at school said, wore, and so on. They also talk extensively about their dreams for the future and beliefs about the world, analyze each other's personalities, and so on. This seems reflective of:
prefrontal cortex.
Margie is planning her daughter's 16th birthday party and trying not to cry, thinking how her daughter seems to be growing up too fast. She is using the part of her brain that is called the:
intuitive thinking
Seventeen-year-old Gina typically makes good decisions and stays out of trouble. Her parents were surprised one night to discover that Gina had sneaked out of the house, knowing that if she were caught she would be grounded and lose driving privileges and the use of her cell phone. When questioned about her decision to sneak out, Gina told her parents that her best friend was having a hard time, so Gina "had to" go talk to her at 3:00 A.M. Nothing else mattered, she told her parents. Gina seemed to have made her decision to sneak out based on _____ thinking.
analytic and intuitive
Raymond is interviewing people to fill an essential management position in his company. Ideally, Raymond would use _____ thought to make this important decision.
moratorium
Tenisha's decision to join the army and see the world before she settles on her career illustrates the concept of:
get poor grades
Cynthia is 17 and works 30 hours per week at a clothing store in the mall. Compared with her peers who do not work, Cynthia is more likely to:
Raul was raised Christian but is converting to the Sikh religion.
Which statement describes the LEAST likely expression of religious identity seen in adolescents?
Identity diffusion
Silas is having trouble even thinking about college or a career and seems to be very disorganized. What is he likely facing?
fight with his parents
Josh is 17 and works 25 hours per week at a fast-food restaurant. Compared to his peers who do not work, Josh is more likely to:
experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion
During Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused about which of many possible roles to adopt is said to be:
support
Seventeen-year-old Freya turns to her parents when she has problems with her friends and when she needs help with her college applications. This is reflective of which aspect of family closeness?
foreclosure
Grace is going to become a doctor because her parents are doctors and they've always told her she would be a great doctor. She has never considered whether this is what she wants; it is just what she thinks she should do. Erikson would describe Grace's identity status as:
gender identity
Eighteen-year-old Gary is struggling. In the future, he would love to be a stay-at-home dad because he loves kids and desperately wants his own family. But he believes that this is not an option for him because he is a male. This belief reflects Gary's:
one-third
Tasha is a senior in high school in the United States. She has never had sex. What fraction of high school seniors would Tasha be a part of according to a 2013 study in the United States?
go to a school dance
Melissa is MOST likely to feel pressure from her friends to:
role confusion
Abra is 17 and does not seem to know or care about her identity. She ignores school assignments, has not looked at colleges, and sleeps away the weekends. Erikson would say that she is in a state of
independence and control
According to the text, parents and teenagers are trying to find a balance between
goes to movies with small groups of boys and girls from her youth group.
Solvi will be 16 next month and is experiencing the third event in Dunphy's sequence of male-female relationships. She:
identity achievement
Heidi comes from an upper-middle-class family, and after high school she went through a period of exploration. She spent some time traveling around Asia, worked at Disneyland for a few summers, and then waited tables in a ski town while learning to snowboard. Now she is attending college and has made a clear commitment to go into business. According to Marcia, Heidi's current identity status would be described as
control
Sixteen-year-old Isaac's parents have a set curfew for him and clear boundaries for what they believe is appropriate behavior. In general, Isaac feels that his parents' rules are reasonable. This is reflective of which aspect of family closeness?
Alberto, whose parents are teachers, but who refuses to go to college
Who is MOST likely to be expressing identity diffusion
13
Julie and her mother argue everyday about the clothing Julie wants to wear, her curfew, and helping out around the house. Julie is probably _____ years old.
identity achievement
Blake is learning which of his parents' values he believes in and which are not for him. This is a sign that Blake is approaching:
Who am I?
Ginny is 15 years old. Which question reflects her main psychosocial task, according to Erikson?
identity diffusion
Simone is struggling with typical social demands such as making friends and putting away her clothes. What is she likely facing?
parasuicide
One night while home alone, 16-year-old Ruby ingested as many prescription and over-the-counter medications as she could find. Her parents found her unconscious and she was taken to the hospital where her stomach was pumped, and she survived the incident. What Ruby did is referred to as:
They will both likely experience a dip in self-esteem.
Lucy and Andrew have just entered adolescence. Which statement is TRUE?
adolescence-limited offender
Fifteen-year-old Angelo, who lives in an urban housing project with a high level of violent crime, has developed a habit of smoking marijuana with his friends before school, skipping classes regularly, and tagging property with graffiti. Angelo is MOST likely
Alcohol
Hani is a 17-year-old Muslim boy from Egypt. What psychoactive drug will he and his friends likely never try?
Jeff, who has low intelligence and suffered from severe malnutrition and abuse as a child
Which teen is MOST likely to be a life-course-persistent offender?
adolescence-limited offender.
Jenna has always had a short attention span and inadequate emotional regulation. She suffered from abuse early in her life and is of low intelligence. Now in high school, she has been caught shoplifting several times and was suspended from school for physically fighting with other students. Jenna is at risk of becoming a(n):
Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.
Which statement is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?
The presence of the gene 5-HTTLPR increased depression in girls everywhere, but only in boys living in low-SES neighborhoods
Which statement is TRUE?
Jose feels sad from time to time and thinks sometimes about killing himself.
Which scenario is fairly common during adolescence?
Parker, whose brother is in jail and who has friends who break the law
Which teen is MOST likely to be an adolescence-limited offender?
post formal thought
Ken is able to think about contradictory elements and combine them into a comprehensive whole. The stage of cognitive development that enables him to do this is called _____ thought.
emerging adult
Tracy is a 24-year-old college graduate who was just accepted into medical school. She has just ended a year-long romantic relationship due to her concern about maintaining a long-distance relationship and the demands of medical school. In developmental terms, Tracy is a(n):
4
Scott is a senior in college. He believes that students have the right to their own opinion and those in the position of authority do not always know the right answers. Scott is at Perry's _____ position.
She is at high risk for a miscarriage
Tabitha, 26, and her husband just learned that they are expecting their first child. If she is typical, which statement is Tabitha UNLIKELY to hear from her obstetrician?
rational tolerance
Jamal, who is African American, has no Mexican American friends. Yet he says that he would like to see more Mexican American students enrolled in his university and favors more financial aid to increase enrollment of Mexican American students. By voicing these concerns Jamal is demonstrating:
practical, flexible, and imaginative
Thinking in adulthood is distinguished from earlier thinking in that it is:
learning specific career skills to secure a good job.
Timor is a college freshman. If he is typical, he MOST likely has the goal of:
Steven, who understands that, although he holds certain values, life is tentative and those values may change
According to Perry's scheme of cognitive and ethical development, who is at position 9?
post formal thinking
Students who had friends from various cultural backgrounds are MOST likely to show advances in:
organ reserve
Rachel is 49 years old. During her yearly physical, she was told that her heart and lungs are losing capacity as a natural part of the aging process. Rachel replied that she did not notice any change and that she felt as she did when she was 25. Rachel's inability to notice any change in her breathing and heart can be attributed to:
fifth
Caleb is a senior in college. He believes that everything is relative, but not equally valid. Caleb is at Perry's _____ position.
disnegage academically
Quintan is a 22-year-old African American male college student. He knows that African American males are only half as likely to earn a college degree as African American females. He is struggling academically. He is likely to:
unconscious prejudice
Demarcus avoids conversing with his elderly neighbors but will help them if they express a need. Demarcus is unaware he is avoiding his elderly neighbors until it is pointed out to him by his wife. His discomfort is MOST likely an example of:
Nigel, who wants to major in business because he hopes to land a good job
Which individual BEST represents today's typical college student?
sixth
Warren has come to the realization that only he can make important decisions about his life and cannot assume that someone else can make the decision for him. Warren is in Perry's _____ position
is in college
Karen wants to learn specific skills in order to secure a good job. It is likely that she
intuitive and analytic
Darrin is a 28-year-old male. When he thinks about things, he is more likely to be practical, flexible, and able to coordinate _____ and _____ thought than he was three years ago
stereotype threat
eshaun is a 20-year-old African American male who believes that academic success is for females and whites. He feels that African American males are held back academically. He may be experiencing:
homeostasis
Pavlos, 44, attends a spinning class three times a week. While in class, his breathing quickens, he sweats through his shirt, and he feels the need to drink a lot of water. Pavlos's change in breathing, sweating, and thirst is an example of his body's attempt to maintain:
Mateo, who is uncertain about what he values and who he is ethnically and religiously
Who is in Erik Erikson's fifth stage of development?
Izak, who believes that living at home will help him focus on his studies during college
Who is NOT pondering an arena of identity?
fifth 5
Jada is 21-years-old and is trying to discover a profession in which she would be fulfilled. Jada is confused about her ethnic identity because her mother is African American and her father is European American. According to Erik Erikson, Jada is trying to resolve the _____ stage.
an economic recession
Maria graduated from college last year with a degree in biology. Maria was initially confident that she would find the job she desired, but she has struggled to find work in her field. She has worked as a waitress since graduating, and this is causing her to question her abilities. Unlike the studies on well-being and self-esteem in emerging adults cited in the text, Maria has decreased self-esteem, which may be due to the cohort effects of:
during adulthood
Jack, who is 15, can expect to complete Erikson's fifth stage of identity versus role confusion:
increased her self-esteem
Caitlin is 25 and has dealt with the many transitions that emerging adults face (e.g., going to college, finding a job). If she is like most emerging adults, these transitions have:
getting married and starting a family.
All of the following are examples of moratoria EXCEPT:
self-protection; isolation
Twenty-year-old Derek has had a series of unsuccessful romantic relationships. In each relationship, when his partner begins to ask about his past experiences, his feelings about aspects of the relationship, and his thoughts about himself, he begins a passive-aggressive withdrawal. According to Erikson, this is an example of _____ that will lead to _____.
9
If Kelley, 27, is typical of young adults today, she has had about how many jobs since she was 18?
making her own decisions
Laurie's parents notice when she comes home from college after completing her first year that she is happier and has better self-esteem. Research cited in the text suggests that the reason for this is due to:
repudiation
Mishka is struggling with her identity and tends to have negative opinions about values, lifestyle, and friendships. Which pathology is she MOST likely to display based on Erikson's theory?
positive changes in his personality
Shawn, 24, is a typical emerging adult who has experienced many transitions, such as leaving home, moving to a new city, and finding a job. Research has shown that these experiences are likely to lead to:
linked lives
Macy's parents announced to her and her 2 siblings that they are getting a divorce after 32 years of marriage. Macy is 23, and her siblings are also adults. All are devastated and confused. For example, Macy does not know which parent she should come home to after she graduates this spring. This situation is an example of how the _____ of family members affect each other.
overweight
Terrance has a BMI of 27. He would be considered:
healthy fats
Gwen is 32-years-old and already worried about getting wrinkles. Which of these does Gwen NOT need to worry about avoiding as she gets older?
about an inch
Ted, 65, was surprised when told by his physician during his yearly physical that he was 5 feet 11 inches tall. Ted's physician told him not to worry because by his age people lose:
obese
William has a BMI of 32. He would be considered
he has a 10-percent chance of needing additional surgery.
Chan is extremely obese, and his physician has recommended gastric bypass surgery. His physician is likely to tell him that he will experience weight loss, but:
denial
Destiny started smoking when she was 16. When her friend asks her why she smokes, she says that she is trying to avoid becoming obese like her mother. According to the section in the textbook entitled "A Habit is Hard to Break," Destiny is in the _____ stage of her habit.
about half
Which BEST expresses the proportion of adults who meet the weekly goal of 150 minutes of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of intense exercise?
computer usuage
Judith and Kai are trying to conceive. Which of these should Kai NOT avoid in order to maximize the health of his sperm?
planning
After her physician told her that she needs to lose weight because she is a high risk for type 2 diabetes, Marcie decided she would join Weight Watchers and located a meeting for the next day. According to the section in the textbook entitled "A Habit is Hard to Break," Marcie is in the _____ step of her habit change
his joints losing flexibility.
At 54, Bradford is an avid golfer. He noticed that he has lost 20 yards on his drive over the last three years. He also noticed that his back is noticeably stiff after playing a round of golf. His golf teacher tells him that he is no longer able to make as big a turn with the golf club, and this is causing him to lose distance on his drive. This is a result of:
Flynn
Dr. Mason is conducting a study of the differences in intelligence across two generations. He knows that he must consider the differences between education and health care when comparing the measurement of intelligence because he understands the influence of the _____ effect.
practical
What type of intelligence would be MOST valued and useful in times when food is scarce and basic survival a challenge?
Benjamin will be better in mathematics, and Tara will have better verbal ability.
Benjamin and Tara are both typical 25-year-olds. Based on the findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study one can assume that:
studying for finals exams
In which situation would analytical intelligence be the MOST useful?
flexible
Bram is an expert stage actor. He is adept at adapting his performance whenever necessary if a colleague misses a line or to reflect a change in audience's mood. This would represent the _____ characteristic of his expertise.
Fluid
Gerry likes to play Trivial Pursuit, do crossword puzzles, and write poetry. He is MOST likely high in _____ intelligence.
severe brain loss
Poor circulation, viruses, and drug abuse could all contribute to _____ in middle adulthood
problem focused
When someone attempts to solve a problem or stressor by attacking or confronting it, it is called the _____ coping strategy.
emotion-focused
Hank is very stressed about his job and his boss' management style. Hank is working on changing his attitude so he can better handle and accept the situation, which he knows will not change. Hank seems to be employing which type of stress coping strategy?
fluid intelligence
Liza is 18-years-old and just started college, where she is being exposed to all sorts of new information that she needs to learn. Which type of intelligence would allow her to quickly use her short-term memory to remember new information and solve complex problems quickly?
fictive kin
Marco is from El Salvador but lives in the United States and rarely sees his family. He has become very close to his roommate's family. They include him in all of their family events. Marco and this family would be considered:
integrity-versus-despair
Seventy-year-old Carl was a physician for 45 years. Now that he is retired, he volunteers at a free clinic for children. Carl is in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
love;respect
Marcus has been happily married to Laila for the last five years and is very secure in their relationship. Over the last year, he has worked very hard to try to get a bonus and recognition from his job. According to Maslow, Marcus has achieved the _____ level and is attempting to reach the _____ level.
family of origin
Alyssa's mother and father and her sister Emily constitute Alyssa's:
conscientiousness.
Isaiah, an accountant, is organized and deliberate. He likes to plan, works long hours, and is self-disciplined. Isaiah's personality clusters high in:
agreeableness
Raul, a social worker, is kind and compassionate. His clients frequently report how much Raul cares about them and his coworkers describe him as generous. Raul's personality clusters high in:
individual differences in thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Tanya is a college junior majoring in psychology. She is scheduled to take a course entitled "Personality" during the next semester. This course MOST likely concerns:
generativity-versus-stagnation
Tamika is happily married with three children. She is involved in her children's sports teams and music classes and tutors other children from their school. Tamika is in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
despair
Seventy-three-year-old William was a lawyer for 43 years. Now that he is retired, he leads legal workshops at a community education center. William is in Erikson's integrity-versus-_____ stage of development
middle-aged
If Mike is struggling to achieve generativity rather than stagnation, Mike is probably
quitting due to dissatisfaction
Chen just graduated from college with a chemistry degree and accepted his first position with a pharmaceutical company. Which is NOT a reason that Chen may lose his job involuntarily?
Marcus, who lives with his biological mother and father
Which parenting relationship will exhibit the LEAST difficulty in developing strong attachment?
reactive
Anthony is an adopted child and has recently been diagnosed with a disorder from the DSM-5. His parents have mentioned that he does not show any love towards them. According to the text, Anthony is demonstrating an example of _____ attachment disorder.
size
Barry and Sharon have raised five children and have experienced the normal challenges of family life. As their family grew, they experienced more family problems. Therefore, it can be said that Barry and Sharon experience a positive correlation between family _____ and family problems.
stagnant
As Jennifer approaches her 50th birthday, her fear of death has increased. As a result, she has decided to take all she can from life "before I have nothing left." Jennifer has been buying clothes and going on expensive vacations. She has stopped teaching Sunday school at her church and spends little time with her two children, who are in college. Erikson would likely describe Jennifer as
intrinsic
Jack doesn't plan to retire as long as his job as a bank branch manager continues to be satisfying and boosts his self-esteem. He enjoys interacting with both the employees and customers at the branch. Jack is clearly motivated by:
She no longer wants to maintain her independence and wants to be institutionalized.

C
Eighty-four-year-old Carla is frail and in need of assistance. Her daughter, Jennifer has tried to provide help and has even offered to have Carla move in with her, but Carla has refused. According to the text, which is NOT a reason she is unwilling to accept help?
generativity
According to Erikson, the chief expression of adult _____ is parenting
feel as if she is stagnating.
Donna just turned 50, and she feels as if she is not making any real contributions through the career she has chosen. She has never married and has no children. Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Donna will:
the notion of the "sandwich" generation is more myth than reality.
Regarding the concept of the sandwich generation, most developmentalists agree that:
generativity
Dr. Gomez, a 66-year-old pediatrician, has been a doctor for more than 30 years. She is not ready to retire because she loves providing health care to children. She believes her patients have impacted her as much as she's helped them. Dr. Gomez is demonstrating _____ through employment
earn enough money to buy a new car.
May-Lin is 61 years old and works as a nurse in a community clinic. All of the following are ways that her job could help her to achieve her generativity needs EXCEPT it helps her:
stagnant
Erikson would describe an older adult who is unsuccessful at achieving generativity as
Which parent is demonstrating generative parenting?
When Sarah hears her 1-year-old cry, she interprets the crying as an attempt by the child to communicate about something distressful.
primary aging
Sally is 85 years old and recently fell and broke her hip. While she was in the hospital, she developed pneumonia. Sally's development of pneumonia is most likely due to changes associated with:
Environmental factors ensured that each cohort was reduced consistently after age 50.
Which statement is NOT a reason for the traditional pyramidal shape of the demographic pyramid?
both primary and secondary aging
Compression of morbidity is influenced by:
elderly drivers have fewer accidents than 20-year-olds
Many old people who have driven all of their lives insist that they are still good drivers. Because they are cautious and limit themselves:
8;13
The proportion of the population over age 65 has reached approximately _____ percent worldwide and _____ percent in the United States.
worry that she is less attractive.
Roberto and his wife Michele are middle-aged and have been married for 32 years. They have reported that their sex life has deteriorated due to a major concern of Michele's. According to the text, Michele would likely:
longer; shorter
By late adulthood, telomeres are _____ in women than in men and _____ in African Americans than European Americans.
stereotype threat
Seventy-six-year-old Jackson is asked to participate in a study on aging and memory. When he enters the room to take the memory test, he sees that all of the other subjects are college students. Jackson's scores end up being significantly lower than the scores of others despite having no symptoms of dementia and being known for having a good memory. Jackson's scores were affected by:
30
Margaret is one of the _____ percent of people age 70 or older who has visual loss because of cataracts.
more people younger than Victoria.
In 2015, Renee turned 64 and her granddaughter, Victoria, turned 15. According to United Nations predictions, there were
cellular aging
Dr. Washington believes that aging is a product of how molecules are damaged over time due to environmental stress and toxins. Dr. Washington is a proponent of:
selective optimization with compensation.
Lorna and John have been married for 47 years and have adjusted to the biological changes that have occurred in their sexual arousal, but many also have improved their relationship in the process. This is an example of:
chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
Athletes are now asked to wear helmets and avoid body contact as means of preventing:
forgetting where one heard of a certain product
Which is NOT likely to be seen in older adults as they experience sensory-input problems?
ambition
Alice, age 75, is a gifted artist who feels that only her _____ has/have changed as a result of her being older.
second
Estelle has Alzheimer's disease. Recently, her speech has become aimless and repetitive, she is experiencing more confusion, and at times gets her words mixed up. She is MOST likely in which stage of the disease?
compensation
Which is NOT a contributor to the slowing down of the brain in primary aging?
retrieval
An older person's saying "I know, but I just can't remember" indicates a problem with
working memory
Eighty-two-year-old Matthew becomes frustrated because he forgets where he placed items, such as his reading glasses seconds after putting them down. Several times his son will find water glasses all over the house because Matthew forgets he already poured himself a glass of water. Matthew also tends to repeat himself quite a bit. Matthew's problem is caused by a reduction in:
ecological validity.
Research suggests that time of day and location (home versus lab) should be considered when measuring memory. This is referred to as:
fronto-temporal NCD
Anson is 75 years old and has recently been experiencing a change in his personality. He is acting more impulsively and does not seem to care about his loved ones, to whom he has always been very devoted. While he was always frugal with his money, he is now gambling frequently and losing much of his retirement savings. He does not seem to be experiencing any physical symptoms. From which is Anson most likely suffering?
objective
It is impossible for ecological validity to be totally _____, as people differ too much about the ecological value of different aspects of cognition
integrity
Raul is 86 years old and has a strong belief in the interdependence of the human experience. Because of this, he has become very involved in his community during late adulthood and feels more connected to the arts, children, and all other humans. Erikson would describe Raul as reaching
The time of transmission from one neuron to another will remain the same.
Janine is 56 years old and has been told by doctors that she has white-matter lesions. Which statement is NOT true regarding these legions?
integrity versus despair
When 84-year-old Jim was younger, he never wanted to talk about his experiences in the Korean War. Over the last 10 years he openly and proudly talks about his experiences, attends veteran reunions, and wears his Purple Heart hat proudly. Jim is in:
activity
Professor Shapiro is your life-span development instructor. One day in class, he discusses his belief that many older people withdraw from others because of their past stratification and that, if they were to engage in activities with others, it would make life more gratifying and promote the positivity effect. Professor Shapiro is supporting _____ theory.
sucker to saint phenomenon
Eighty-one-year-old Hank talks humorously about his younger days, which included sneaking his Dad's liquor, various sexual exploits, and illegal drag racing. He views these experiences as part of "growing up" and harmless. Hank's attitude toward his previous behavior is known as:
holding onto ones' identity
The statement "I am still my same happy self, but I look a little different now" is an example of:
universal design
Sixty-eight-year-olds Steven and Rosa are looking for a house that can accommodate Steven's mild visual problems and Rosa's moderate motor difficulties. The type of house that would BEST suit their needs is a(n)
she is more strongly committed to her religious heritage as a Muslim than her cultural or national background.
Senalat, age 72, lives in Ethiopia. It is likely that:
integrity versus despair
Older adults seeking to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community is the definition of Erikson's stage of development known as:
rying to forget the past and focus on the present
Preserving the self is crucial to older adults. This explains all of the following EXCEPT
selective optimization with compensation.
Even though Evelyn has just retired, she still continues to set personal goals, assess her abilities and figure out how to accomplish her goals despite limitations in her physical abilities. Evelyn's actions are an example of:
positivity effects
Madge best remembers the good times in her life and does not talk much about the difficult or bad times. Psychologists refer to this as the:
bridge work
Sixty-six-year-old Alex is in the process of retiring from his position as the head of litigation in a law firm. Over the next six months, he will oversee cases of the younger associates and the next six months work part time editing legal briefs and then exit the firm. Alex is doing _____ for his firm before he retires.
memory
According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, recently retired Joyce will likely seek familiar social contacts that reinforce all of the following EXCEPT
socioemotional selectivity
Mika, who is 85 years old, believes that his future time is limited. He has started to spend more time thinking about the meaning of life and how to show his family and friends that he truly appreciates them. Mika is demonstrating the _____ theory.
filial
Sue, 45, feels an obligation to take care of her aging parents by helping them around their house, going grocery shopping for them, and taking them to doctor appointments. This is called _____ responsibility.
involved
James and Sarah have three young grandchildren. Because both parents work, they take the grandchildren to doctor appointments, team practices, and pick them up from school, where they stay until their parents are off of work. James and Sarah would be considered _____ grandparents
surrogate parents.
Juanita and Miguel are raising their two grandchildren after their mother was arrested and placed in prison. The father has never been involved with the children. Juanita and Miguel are:
companionate grandparents
Grandparents Lily and John enjoy taking their grandchildren on special outings and spoiling them with special gifts. They would be considered:
to be frail.
Martin, age 86, is no longer able to bathe and dress himself. He also needs help eating. He is considered
In long-term marriages, if one spouse is disabled and needs care, the spouse providing the care is likely to feel that the marriage is no longer equal in give-and-take.
Eighty-four-year-old Leonard and Vivian have been married for 62 years. Vivian has been disabled with Alzheimer disease over the last two years. According to research cited in the text (Cornwell, 2012), which statement about the consequences of Leonard's responsibility to provide care for Vivian is likely to be FALSE?
village care.
Jordan and a bunch of her neighbors have decided to pool their resources so that they can stay in their homes but also have social assistance when they all need it. Jordan and her neighbors are setting up
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