A & P 1: Ch 5 The Integumentary System

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Terms in this set (...)

Protection, excretion, production, synthesis, storage, detection
Functions of the skin
Melanin and keratin
The skin produces what?
Salts, water, and organic wastes
What does the skin excrete?
Underlying tissues and organs
What does the skin protect?
Vitamin d3
What does the skin synthesize?
Touch, pressure, pain, temp
What does the skin detect?
Lipids
What does the skin store?
Subcutaneous layer
Also known as hypodermis or superficial layer
Hypodermis
Loose connective tissue, below the dermis. Location of hypodermic injections.
Avascular stratified squamous epithelium
Which tissue type makes up the epidermis?
Thin skin
Covers most of the body, has 4 layers of keratinocytes
Thick skin
Covers the palms of hands and soles of feet. 5 layers of keratinocytes.
Thick skin
The 5 strata of keratinocytes are found in what?
Basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
List the layers of the epidermis from basal lamina to free surface (stratum)
The stratum Basale
This is attached to basement membrane by hemidesmosomes.
The stratum Basale
This forms epidermal ridges (fingerprints) and dermal papillae (tiny mounds).
Merkel cells and melanocytes
Specialized cells of stratum Basale
Melanocytes
Contain the pigment melanin. Scattered throughout stratum Basale
Stratum corneum
The "horn layer". Exposed surface of skin. 15 to 30 layers of keratinized cells. Water resistant. Shed & replaced every 2 weeks
Keratinization
The formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled w/ keratin. Occurs on all exposed skin surfaces, except eyes. Skin life cycle.
15-39 days
How long does it take for a cell to move from stratum Basale to stratum corneum?
Carotene and melanin
Skin color is influenced by what two pigments?
Melanin
Yelow-brown or black pigment. Produced by melanocytes in stratum Basale.
Transport Vesicles
Where is melanin stored?
Keratinocytes
Melanin is transferred to what?
Uv radiation
What does melanin (melanocytes) protect skin from?
Melanin production
Skin color depends on _____ ______, not # of melanocytes.
Sebaceous glands
Holocrine glands that discharge an oily lipid secretion into hair follicles. Secrete sebum. Also know as oil glands.
Sweat glands
Apocrine and Merocine glands, also known as sudoriferous. Watery secretions.
Merocine sweat glands
Coiled, tubular glands that discharge their secretions directly onto the surface of the skin.
Apocrine sweat glands
Secrete their products into hair follicles
Papillary layer
Consists of areolar tissue, contains the capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons that supply the surface of the skin.
Reticular layer
Deep to the papillary layer, consists of an interwoven meshwork of dense irregular connective tissue, containing both collagen and elastic fibers.
5
How many layers does thick skin have?
4
How many layers does this skin have?
Stratum lucidum
What layers does the think skin include that the thin skin does not?
Keratinocytes
Contain large amounts of keratin. Are the most abundant cells in the epidermis.
Merkel cells
Found in hairless skin. Respond to touch (trigger nervous system).
Melanocytes
Contain the pigment melanin. scattered throughout stratum Basale.
Carotene
Accumulates in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis. Can be converted to vitamin A.
The dermis
Located between epidermis and subcutaneous layer. Anchors epidermal accessory structures (hair follicles, sweat glands).
Outer papillary layer and deep reticular layer
What are the 2 components of the dermis?
The papillary layer
Consists of areolar tissue. Contains smaller capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons. Has dermal papillae projecting epidermal ridges.
The reticular layer
Consists of dense irregular connective tissue. Contains larger blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. Contains collagen & elastic fibers.
Contains connective tissue proper.
The hypodermis
Lies below the integument. Stabilizes the skin.
The hypodermis
Allows separate movement. Made of elastic areolar and adipose tissues
The hypodermis
Connected to the reticular layer of integument by connective tissue fibers. Few capillaries and no vital organs.
Palms, soles, lips, portions of external genitalia
The human body is covered with hair except:
Sebum
Contains lipids and other ingredients. Lubricates and protects the epidermis. Inhibits bacteria.
Apocrine sweat glands
Found in armpits, around nipples, and groin.
Apocrine sweat glands
Produce sticky, cloudy secretions. Break down and cause odors. Surrounds by myoepithelial cells.
Merocine sweat glands
Cools skin. Excretes water and electrolytes. Flushes microorganism and harmful chemicals from skin
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