resting tone of the myometrium increases - contractions are more frequent but intensity may decrease = painful and ineffective contractions. This can cause maternal exhaustion and fetal intolerance to labor, decreased placental perfusion and asphyxia
less the 2-3 contractions in 10 min. generally occurs in the active phase of labor. These are really weak contractions that dont result in dilation or effacement = maternal exhaustion and infection. and fetal intolerance of labor and asphyxia
how is hypotonic labor managed?
with admin of pitocin, encouraging voiding, preventing dehydration, position changes, limit vag exams if ROM
labor lasting less then 3 hours. Sudden, unexpected and often unattended birth. Not really any pushing - baby just slides out in second stage of labor
what does malpresentation of the fetus result in
dysfunctional labor patterns, arrest of descent or dilation, pain
difficult labor due to fetal malposition, excessive size multiples, fetal anomaly. vaginal birth is difficult if not impossible
presence of contractions in one or more of the three planes of the pelvis (inlet, midpelvis, outlet)
fetus is larger than the pelvic diameter. This can be caused by abnormal position/ presentation and may occur as the presenting part tries to pass through the pelvis
the anterior shoulder or both shoulders become impacted above the pelvic rim after the delivery of the head
what are the signs of shoulder dystocia
turtle head retraction of the fetal head back into the vaginal canal
what are complications of shoulder dystocia
brachial plexus injury, broken clavicle, neurological injury, asphyxia, death
management of shoulder dystocia
suprapubic pressure (downward traction of the fetal head) (get on patient and push really hard). midline episiotomy. McRoberts maneuver (pull legs up to chest), empty bladder, anticipate neonatal resuscitation.
Last resort: push babies head back in and do a C-section.
umbilical cord precedes the presenting part. pressure from presenting part and maternal pelvis compress cord and decrease blood flow to the fetus.
risk factors to cord prolapse
malpresentation, presenting part not engaged, preterm or small fetus, multiple gestations
management of cord prolapse
relieve pressure of the cord ASAP! lift the presenting part of the cord and hold it this way until pt is in the OR. admin O2 and IV bolus. DC oxytocin and admin a tocolytic to decrease uterine activity
Anaphylactoid Syndrome (Amniotic Fluid Embolism)
leaking of amniotic fluid into maternal circulation/ immune response to fluid. This is an EMERGENCY!
signs of Anaphylactic syndrome
acute dyspnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, hypotension, cardiac and respiratory arrest, uterine atony, massive hemorrhage, coagulopathy-disseminated intravascular coagulation
tearing of the uterine muscles either partial or complete. caused from: weakened uterine scar, mismanagement of pitocin, obstetric trauma
signs of uterine rupture
tearing sensation, vaginal bleeding, fetal compromise or loss of fetal heart time, maternal hemorrhage, hypovolemia, shock
chorionic villi attach directly into the myometrium = hemorrhage-placenta fail to separate... hysterectomy
Uterus comes through vagina inside out. can occur both at the time of birth or later in life.