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APUSH Period 6 Test
Terms in this set (63)
Came from Italy, Greek, Croatia, Slovakia, Poland, and Russia. Most were poor and illiterate. Unaccustomed to democratic traditions. Many were Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, and Jewish. Most crowded into ethnic neighborhoods in big cities upon arrival to the U.S.
Came from the British Isles, Germany, and Scandinavia. Most were Protestant, some were Irish or German Catholic. Most spoke English, high level of literacy, had occupational skills. Easily blended into American society
American Federation of Labor
National federation of trade unions that included skilled workers founded in 1886; led by Samuel Gompers; sought to negotiate with employers for a better kind of capitalism that rewarded workers fairly with better hours, wages, and conditions.
An association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions. Represented all trade unions.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Law that forbade trusts or combinations in business. Landmark legislation because it was the first congressional attempt to regulate business for public good. Initially used to restrain trade unions as the courts sided with companies in trial
Farmers in deep debt, high interest rates, crop lien system, railroads charging high prices for crop transportation
What were reasons for farmer protests and discontent in the 1890's?
Compromise of 1877
States had disputed votes, an electoral commission of 15 men from the House, Senate, and SCOTUS counted votes. The compromise gave the presidency to Hayes and removed all federal troops from the south, therefore ENDING RECONSTRUCTION
Plessy v. Ferguson
Upheld a Louisiana law requiring "separate but equal accommodations" for white and black railroad passengers. SCOTUS ruled that the Louisiana law did not violate the 14th amendment's guarantee of "equal protection under the law"
William Jennings Bryan's "Cross of Gold" Speech
Speech that captured the hearts of the delegates: "We will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: 'You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.' ". This speech was so powerful that the Democrats instantly nominated him for president in the election of 1896
Who supported William Jennings Bryan?
Causes of Pullman Strike
In 1894, wages were cut in Pullman's Railroad Car factory and leaders of workers' delegations were fired if they came to beg with Pullman
Effects of Pullman Strikes
The boycott tied up rail transportation across the country. Federal court issued an injunction forbidding interference with the operation of the mail an ordering railroad workers to end the strike. They failed to respond to this injunction and the leaders of the union were arrested and jailed. Eventually, SCOTUS approved the use of court injunctions against strikes, giving employers a powerful weapon to break unions
Causes of Homestead Strike
Henry Clay Frick cut wages by 20% and announced the company wouldn't recognize unions and only sign individual contracts with workers
Effects of Homestead Strike
Failure of this strike caused a set back in the union movement in the steel industry until the 1930's. Governor Pattison sent in the state militia to fight off the strikers. Once the union and strike was crushed, Carnegie lowered wages, imposed a 12-hour workday, no overtime for working on Sunday, and let 500 people go
Booker T Washington
-Founded Tuskegee Institute
-Born a slave
-Accepted racial status quo: such as segregation and white superiority, disenfranchisement
-Worked for economic and educational advancements for blacks
-Founded National Negro Business League
-Wrote "Up from Slavery"
-Advisor to Roosevelt and Taft
-Didn't accept segregation or racism
-"The Souls of Black Folk"
-First African American to get a PhD at Harvard in history
-Founder of NAACP
-Fled to Ghana, became a communist, and denounced USA citizenship
Jim Crow laws
Series of laws passed in southern states that segregated the races in public areas. Led to blacks having unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Poor farmers rented land and residences from a plantation owner in exchange for giving him a certain percentage of each year's crop. Popular in the south, landowners manipulated the system
This is the belief in "survival of the fittest", or natural selection. This was not only applied to the races and contributed to white supremacy, but also to the economy. In relation to the economy, social darwinism was the belief that only the best companies would survive on the national market, and those not fit for big business will fail. Social Darwinism also included the belief that people were poor for a reason, and to give to the poor would throw off the natural balance of the world.
Protestant clergy preached the importance of applying Christian principles to social problems. Led by Walter Rauschenbusch- worked in Hell's Kitchen. Linked Christianity with the progressive reform movement and encouraged many middle-class Protestants to attack urban problems.
State-level attempt to prevent/regulate monopolies, pools and trusts. However, the state cannot regulate interstate commerce. This state level attempt failed, so they turned to the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
characteristics of the Gilded Age
Industrialization, immigration, corruption, labor unrest, and Westward migration/conflict with Natives
Labor unions' attitudes towards immigrants
The Knights of Labor represented all workers, including immigrants
Trends/practices in railroad expansion
Creating a national market for goods. (This encouraged mass production, mass consumption, and economic specialization). All about connection- Vanderbilt connected NYC to Chicago, and other eastern seaports with Chicago and other midwestern cities. Railroads promoted settlement on the Great Plains, and linked the east and west. The federal government provided railroad companies with huge subsidies. Often led to poor construction and corruption.
Pros of railroads
-Created a market for goods (which lead to mass production and economic specialization
-Because the railroads used resources, growth of coal and steel
-Creation of time zones
-Creation of national market
-Settlement of Great Plains promoted
Cons of railroads
-Mismanagement led to business failures
-Investors watered stocks (inflated value)
-Corruption in the form of kickbacks and rebates to shippers
-Pools (competing companies secretly joining together to fix rates and share traffic)
-Small farmers struggled
The major rail lines decreased common fixed times so that they could keep schedules an avoid wrecks
The U.S. changed to standard time zones when...
Famers and their anger towards railroads
Farmers were being charged extremely high prices for transportation of crops that farmers could not afford since most were already in debt
Problems facing cities
Pollution, poverty, crime, overcrowding in ethnic neighborhoods, spread of disease, corrupt politicians, no regulations
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Relied on support of immigrants to keep his political machine afloat. Responsible for the construction of the NY court house; actual construction cost $3million. Project cost tax payers $13million. He also overpayed for things so that everyone would get a cut of money. Famously drawn by Thomas Nast.
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians, including Boss Tweed, depicting him as an overweight, greedy, and slovenly man. Famously poked at Boss Tweed's rampant corruption and called attention to his wrongdoing
Government involvement in construction of railroads
Federal government provided railroad companies with huge subsidies, money and land grants. They knew western railroad would lead the way to settlement. Gave 80 railroad companies more than 170 million acres to public land. Land was given in a checkerboard pattern. They expected that the railroad would sell the land to new settlers to finance construction. Land grants and cash loans promoted hasty and poor construction and corruption.
Set up the Civil Service Commission and created a system by which applicants for classified federal jobs would be selected on the basis of their scores on a competitive examination. Also prohibited civil servants from making political contributions.
Started the Hull House in Chicago, a settlement house to help immigrants
-Well-educated middle class folks lived in immigrant neighborhoods and learned the problems that immigrants faced
-Provided social services for people in the neighborhood: teach English, pioneered early childhood education, taught industrial arts, and established neighborhood theaters and music schools
-Hull House in Chicago: Began by Jane Addams and a friend
-By 1910: 400+ settlement houses in America's largest cities
-Settlement workers later become social workers; crusaded for child-labor laws, housing reform, and women's rights
Causes of Battle of Wounded Knee 1890
American government attempted to suppress the Native Ghost Dance movement. During their campaign to end the movement, Sioux medicine man Sitting Bull was killed during his arrest. In December of that year, the U.S. Army gunned down 200+ natives.
Election campaign used by Republicans to remind voters of the blood shed by the northern soldiers in the Civil War.
Purpose of Interstate Commerce Act 1887
Required railroad rates to be "reasonable and just". This stemmed from the SCOTUS decision that individual states could not regulate interstate commerce. First federal government attempt to regulate business.
Election of 1896
Won by William McKinley, republican. Other candidate was William Jennings Bryan, democrat. Bryan couldn't win NE because laborers feared free silver idea- it would hurt factory workers. City v. country- won by urban forces. Mark Hanna campaigned for McKinley through mass media, while Bryan travelled the country. Bryan's campaign marked the last time a major party attempted to win the presidency by exclusively courting the rural vote.
Immigrants, as political machines provided favors to immigrants in exchange for votes
Who supported political machines such as Tammany Hall?
Relationship between Natives and federal government
The way the federal government saw it, Natives were sitting on American's gold and potential profitable land. Many acts were passed that were meant to "protect" the Natives, but in reality it hurt them more than it helped.
Helen Hunt Jackson & "A Century of Dishonor"
"A Century of Dishonor" by Helen Hunt Jackson was meant to draw attention to the Native American's struggles, and create sympathy for them, but in reality, it just drew support for the cultural assimilation of Native Americans into American society. These supporters wanted Native Americans to join American society and abandon their traditional ways. The Carlisle School in Pennsylvania forced Native American children away from their native homes and teach them English, dress them in American style clothing, and overall make them lose their native background
The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 was brought on by the belief of allowing Native Americans to stay together as tribes was preventing them from becoming Americans and not adopting traditional American values. The federal government passed this act, giving one family of Natives 160 acres of land (or more depending on family size). After staying on the land for 25 years and adopting the "traditional" way of life, they were promised U.S. citizenship. In reality, this act failed. 90 million of the acres promised to Natives was sold to white settlers. The acreage given to Natives wasn't near enough to support themselves on. By the turn of the century, due to disease, only 200,000 Natives were left in the United States.
Relationship between labor unions and the government
The government always sided with the big-business corporations, so labor unions never really won
Panic of 1873
During Grant's presidency. Left thousands of Northern laborers jobless and homeless. Caused by over-speculation of financiers and overbuilding. Debtors everywhere demanded the creation of green paperback money. After this panic, many Americans blamed the gold standard for restricting the money supply and causing the depression.
Chinese Exclusion Act
As mining towns grew in the west, mining companies employed experienced miners from Europe, Latin America, and China. Native-born Americans resented the foreign competition, and in California, hostility to foreigners took the form of a Miner's Tax. Political pressure from western states moved Congress to pass the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which prohibited further immigration to the U.S. by Chinese laborers.
Hardships for workers
Dangerous working conditions, exposure to harsh chemicals, dangerous and unreliable machinery, low wages, long hours, no sick time, child labor, fired for being out once, people changing jobs every 3 years
Using the same directors on different boards to run competing companies
Different businesses coming together for a profit. Eventually outlawed.
Steel tycoon. took advantage of the Bessemer process, which was quick and cheap. Creates factories in areas rich with iron ore. Uses vertical integration. Sells Carnegie Steel to JP Morgan for $400 million. U.S. Steel was the first billion dollar company.
Railroad tycoon. Built NY Central Railroad, spanning from NYC to Chicago. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical. Made his millions before the railroad in steamboats.
Oil tycoon. Started Standard Oil. Mode of operation included running others out of business. Forced other competitors out of business and bought their failing companies. Used horizontal integration. Built Standard Oil Trust, which owned 90% of all oil refineries in the U.S.
Financier/investor. Refinanced the railroads during Panic of 1893, which eliminated competition and 7 giant systems controlled 2/3 of the nation's railroads. Bought Carnegie Steel and turned it into U.S. Steel for $400 million. Loaned $65 million in gold to President Cleveland to support the dollar and the gold standard, which convinced many Americans that the government in Washington was simply a tool of rich bankers.
Railroad tycoon. Involved in Credit Mobilier scandal. Owned the Erie Railroad
Railroad tycoon. Speculator. Entered the railroad business for quick profits and made millions by selling off assets and watering stock (inflating the value then selling it to make a profit)
Used by Rockefeller, it kept all the companies that he had bought out under one corporate umbrella, where he had control over all the companies. This meant that he owned all the businesses and could use their companies for profit
Used by Carnegie, this integration means that Carnegie owned everything and every place that his steel came into contact with, from the factories it was produced in to the place that it was sold.
Focused on the state level, waved the bloody shirt, favored by former slaves and reformers, business and middle class, and Anglo-Saxon Protestants. Favored high protective tariffs and supported temperance/prohibition. Didn't play the patronage game. Included Rutherford Hayes (ended reconstruction) James Garfield (half-breed), Chester Arthur (stalwart), Benjamin Harrison, and William McKinley
Focused on the cities. Support centered in the South. In the North, democrats included big city political machines, immigrants, Catholics, Lutherans, and Jews. Objected prohibition. Focused on states' rights. Opposed high protective tariffs. Split in 1896: Prosilver Democrats and Gold Democrats. Included Grover Cleveland
Advocated for civil service reform, an end to railroad subsidies, withdraw of troops from the South, reduced tariffs, and free trade
Agrarian-based political movement aimed at improving conditions for the country's farmers and agrarian workers. The Populist movement was preceded by the Farmer's Alliance and the Grange. The Democratic party eventually adopted many of its goals and the Populists folded into the Democratic party. Supported the Omaha Platform: unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, public ownership of RR by US government, communications owned and operated by government, more government laws to stabilize crop prices, and 8-hour workday
Republicans who wanted reform, such as James Blaine
Headed by Roscoe Conklin (NY Republican)- opposed reform
"on the fence" about reform; supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884
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