Box 10-1 definitions

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Terms in this set (...)

perception
interpretation of the sensations received from enviornmental stimuli
Attention
link between the limited amount of information that is actually manipulated mentally and the enormous amount of information available through the senses, stored memories, and other cognitive processes
signal detection
detecting the appearance of a particular stimulus
vigilance
paying close and continuos attention
search
active scanning of the environment for particular stimuli or features
selective
tracking one stimulus or one type of stimulus and ignoring another
divided
allocating avaliable resources to coordinated performance of more thatn one task at a time
memory
drawing on past knowledge to use it in the present
storage
the movement of encoded information into memory and the maintenance of information in storage
sensory
the smallest capacity for storing information and the sortest duration for memory storage
short-term
a modest capacity and a duration of a number of seconds unless strategies are used for keeping the information in short-term store for longer periods of time
long-term
a greater capacity than both the sensory store and the short-term store, and it can store information for very long periods of time even indefinitely
retrieval
recovery of stored information from memory by moving the information into consciousness for use in active cognitivie processing
recall
retrieving memories with no hints
recognition
retrieving memories with hints
orientation
knowig and scertaining one's relation to self, to others, to time, and to one's surroundings
person
awareness of one's own identity and of individuals in the immediate environment
place
awareness of one's location such as one's town or country
time
awareness of day, date, month, and year also time management
quantity
activity involving numbers and other incremental problems
knowledge representation
the mental representation of facts, objects, and skills
categorization
the characterization of the relationship among objects, concepts, or thoughts
sorting
organizing objects, concepts, and thoughts into defined categories
sequencing
ordering objects or activities accoding to a set of rules
problem solving
a process for which the goal is to overcome obstacles obstructing a path to a solution
problem identification
awareness of and definition of the problem
judgement
ability to make sound decisions, recognizing the consequences of decisions taken or actions performed
decision making
selection a course of action from defined alternatives
deductive
to draw a specific conclusion from a set of general propositions
inductive
to reach a probable general conclusion on the basis of specific facts or observations
planning
anticipating events so as to formulate a course of action to achieve a desired outcome
evaluation and iteration
monitoring the status of the problem evaluating if the goal has been achieve and if not making another iteration of the problem solving cycle
transfer
the carryover of knowledge or skills from one context to another
language
a system of communicating objects concepts emotions and thoughts through the systematic use of sounds graphics, gestures, and thoughts
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