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GJA-7th Grade Chemistry: Penny Cleaning Lab: Hydrogen, Hydrogen Ion, Hydronium, pH (Power of Hydrogen & Power of Hydroneum) Acid, Base, pH, Acid, Alkaline, Equilibrium (Balance), (Dec. 11th - Dec. 1th)

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (37)

Atoms are made up of a NUCLEUS & OUTER ORBITS

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1. the NUCLEUS is the center of the atom composed of PROTONS & NEUTRONS*

2. the OUTER ORBITS (aka outside rings or shells) is located outside of the NUCLEUS and is made up of MULTIPLE RINGS. Each ring is called an ORBIT or SHELL and each RING or SHELL has ELECTRONS floating around them. Electrons carries (-) NEGATIVE CHARGES.

An ATOM or MOLECULE can LOSE both its PROTONS and ELECTRONS.

The NUMBER of PROTONS INSIDE the NUCLEUS of the ATOM is what determines the NUMBER ofELECTRONS in the SHELL or RINGS of the OUTER ORBITS.

The NUMBER of PROTONS also determines the CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of the ATOM & IDENTITY of the ELEMENT.

-this means that The NUMBER of ELECTRONS in the OUTER ORBITS is DETERMINED by the NUMBER of PROTONS INSIDE of the NUCLEUS*.

The NUMBER of PROTONS inside the NUCLEUS determines the number of ELECTRONS in the OUTER ORBITS. The NUMBER of PROTONS also determines the CHEMICAL PROPERTIES of the ATOM & IDENTITY of the ELEMENT.

Protons contribute to the mass of an atom and provide positive charge to the atom. The number of protons also determines the identity of the element

An ATOM can LOSE both PROTONS and ELECTRONS.

The number of protons determines the number of electrons. This, in turn, determines the chemical properties of the atom. Protons contribute to the mass of an atom and provide positive charge to the atom. The number of protons also determines the identity of the element

(A) NUCLEUS (CENTER of the ATOM made up of:

1. PROTONS (carries + POSITIVE CHARGE)

2. NEUTRONS (carries NO CHARGE)

(B) OUTER ORBITS (OUTSIDE of the nucleus, made up of different levels called SHELLS or ORBITS*)

the OUTER ORBITS which is outside of the NUCLEUS has MULTIPLE RINGS. Each ring is called an ORBIT or SHELL and each has ELECTRONS floating around them. Electrons carries (-) NEGATIVE charges.
an ION is an electrically charged PARTICLE.

an ION is an ELECTRICALLY CHARGED ATOM or MOLECULE that has either LOST or GAIN one or more ELECTRON. This LOST or GAIN of one or more ELECTRON makes the ATOM or MOLECULE become either POSITIVE (+) or NEGATIVE (-) ELECTRICALLY CHARGED.


an ION is an ELECTRICALLY CHARGED ATOM or MOLECULE that has either LOST or GAIN one or more ELECTRON. This electrically charge ATOM or MOLECULE (otherwise known as particle) can be either POSITIVE (+) or NEGATIVE (-).

you see, a NORMAL ATOM or MOLECULE will CARRY a NEUTRAL CHARGE, this means that there are EQUAL NUMBERS of POSITIVE PROTONS compared to NEGATIVE ELECTRONS.

when an ATOM or MOLECULE has either LOST* or *GAIN* one or more ELECTRONS this cause it to become either *POSITIVELY (+)* or *NEGATIVELY (-)* CHARGED. this makes the ATOM or MOLECULE become *VERY UNSTABLE* and *ACTIVE* because it goes around looking to FIND and REPLACE the *MATCHING MISSING* *POSITIVE proton or one or more ELECTRONS this cause it to become either e or more ELECTRONS this cause it to become either *POSITIVELY (+)* or *NEGATIVELY (-)* CHARGED. this makes the ATOM or MOLECULE become *VERY UNSTABLE* and *ACTIVE* because it goes around looking to FIND and REPLACE the *MATCHING MISSING* *POSITIVE proton or CHARGED. this makes the ATOM or MOLECULE become N* one or more ELECTRONS this cause it to become either *POSITIVELY (+)* or *NEGATIVELY (-)* CHARGED. this makes the ATOM or MOLECULE become *VERY UNSTABLE and ACTIVE because it goes around looking to FIND and REPLACE the MATCHING MISSING POSITIVE proton or NEGATIVE electron* charge.

That means an atom with a neutral charge is one where the number of electrons is equal to the atomic number. Ions are atoms with extra electrons or missing electrons. When you are missing an electron or two, you have a positive charge. When you have an extra electron or two, you have a negative charge.


a positively charged ION is called a CATION, and a negatively charged ION is called ANION

CATION: a positively charged ion, i.e., one that would be attracted to the cathode in electrolysis.

ANION: a negatively charged ion, i.e., one that would be attracted to the anode in electrolysis.

Definition of ion. a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons Hyponyms: anion, cation.

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