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Terms in this set (71)
What do we mean by Byzantine art and architecture? Where and when does it begin?
Work tied by patronage or tradition to Constantinople is termed "Byzantine".
Division between the Early Christian and Byzantine eras is generally made at the reign of Justinian (527-565), who, as emperor based in Constantinople, put an end to factional disputes, reasserted to heretical rulers, and engaged in a vigorous program of church-building.
Explain the importance of the location of the church of St. Denis and how the church is connected to the kings of France.
St. Denis' decapitated body walked north from Paris while carrying his own head up to that location. There he was buried, and his tomb attracts pilgrims.
St. Denis became the Patron Saint of France, specifically of Royal France, and Kings of France were buried alongside St. Denis.
What are some of the spiritual goals and architectural precedents that influenced Abbot Suger and his vision for building a new church at St. Denis?
Suger was inspired by the description of the Temple of Solomon in the Old Testament, writings of St. Denis, and the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
How much of the church of St. Denis was completed during the Early Gothic Phase? What are some of the Early Gothic details of the facade?
West facade was built first, then the Eastern ambulatory and then all the in between was the old church which was then destroyed to rebuild it and connect the western side to the east side.The ambulatory was created with ribbed vaults and pointed arches in order to add stained glass in the windows without worrying about support.
How does the plan of the Gothic church of St. Denis compare to the older 8th century Carolingian church?
The upper part of the choir & transepts were taken down and rebuilt. Compound piers (cluster of vertical shafts) start at the floor and extend up to the rib vaults.
Bar tracery unites the triforium with the clerestory above.
The wall behind the triforium was opened and provided windows .
What are the characteristics of the interior and exterior elevation in the final Gothic phase of the church of St. Denis?
It has a very large clerestory, triforium, and the arcade.
What does "Notre Dame" refer to? Why are there so many medieval churches with this name?
Notre Dame is french for Our Lady. The Virgin Mary, a mother that had suffered great sorrow, had great popular appeal and became an intercessor.
How does the cathedral at Laon exemplify the characteristics of a Gothic church, in its plan and elevation?
It has a semi-circular Gothic apse, and flying buttresses.
Why did pilgrims visit Notre Dame Cathedral in Chartres? What relic was found there, and what role did it play in the rebuilding of the church after a devastating fire?
It housed the Tunic of the Virgin Mary. Following the fire that destroyed the church
in 1194, the sacred tunic was carried out,
miraculously unharmed, from the ruins of
the crypt. The people saw this a sign and rebuilt the church.
What are the main parts of its plan and how does this relate, practically and symbolically, to the purpose of a Gothic cathedral?
Plan is laid out in the shape of a cross and you always enter from West and move towards the East
What are the four parts of the interior elevation of this cathedral? What is the major structural development seen here?
From bottom to top: arcade, gallery, triforium, clerestory.
Major structural development is that of the rib vault, concentrates loads on corners and reduces weight of vault by using less material (needing less $)
What is particularly notable about the sculpture of the openwork towers? What does this tell us about the process of building of the cathedral?
Different styles are seen are various heights on the towers
Indication of numerous architects working on the project over the decades
Who is Chartres Cathedral dedicated to? What relic survived the fire of 1194 and how does this play a role in the rebuilding of the church after the fire of 1194?
Cathedral is dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
The fire had been seen as a sign of divine displeasure, and the survival of the tunic was taken as a sign that Mary desired a larger church
Funds were raised super fast, and the cathedral was built in 26 years from 1194-1220
Describe the interior elevation of Chartres. How does the structure of the interior relate to the exterior?
Has 3 divisions: Nave, arcade, triforium, and clerestory. The flying buttresses spread the weight from the walls and allowed for larger windows.
How does Notre Dame Cathedral in Chartres compare to Notre Dame in Laon? What are some of the differences in plan, elevation, and structure?
Chartres does not have a gallery level like Laon.
Who built the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and why? What purposes does it serve, both practically and symbolically?
Built by Louis IX to hold important relics (crown of thorns, a piece of the true cross, a nail used in the crucifixion)/serve as propaganda statement
Multiple stained glass windows depicting the king, namely one showing King Louis IX carrying the crown of thorns
Describe the plan and support structure of the Sainte-Chapelle; how does this allow the walls of the upper chapel to be almost completely filled by stained glass windows?
Sainte-Chapelle is a part of the palace
Two stories, a ground floor chapel for household servants and an upper chapel for royal family
Building is very small, does not require flying buttresses, instead uses buttresses- there are iron-tie rods built into the masonry to link buttresses and support stained glass windows
Describe the plan of the Early Gothic church at Canterbury. How does it relate to the earlier Romanesque (Norman) church that burned down? How does it compare to a typical French church?
Alternating paired cylindrical columns and round piers support six part rib vaults
• Vaults spring from the same level as the gallery arcades
• Gallery has two sets of paired arches, Clerestory has a wall passage
• Decorative use of dark stone, "Purbeck marble" for column shafts, horizontal accents
• Emphasis on horizontal, rather than vertical lines
Why did Canterbury become a destination for pilgrims and how did this influence its design when it was rebuilt?
1170: Martyrdom of Thomas Becket, 1174: a fire in the town of Canterbury
Shrine of St. Thomas Becket is part of the new church
Eastern transept, Trinity Chapel, and Corona Chapel known as "Becket's Crown"
What are some of the characteristics of the Early English Gothic Style seen in the interior of Canterbury Cathedral?
Alternating paired cylindrical columns and round piers, six part rib vaults
Vaults spring from same level as the gallery arcades
gallery has two sets of paired arches
Clerestory has a wall passage
Decorative use of dark stone, "purbeck marble" for column shafts, horizontal accents
Emphasis on horizontal rather than vertical
What style was used to rebuild the nave and western transept? What characteristics can you identify here?
Perpendicular Period (1377-1405), compound pier, clerestory level, perpendicular style vaulting
How does the plan of Salisbury Cathedral reflect the architectural elements of an abbey? How does it compare to the Cistercian Abbey at Fontenay, France?
Double transept, square east end. Cross shaped unlike Cistercian Abbey
What are the characteristics of the Decorated Style? In what part of the cathedral at Salisbury can we see this style?
The cloisters were completed in 1284 in the early decorated style, including ribbed vaults, stained glass, and cloistered
What are some of the types of houses built in the medieval period and who would have lived in them?
Rural houses made of earth, wood and thatch- peasants
House barn built on a rectangular plan entered through doorways placed opposite to one another on the long sides. The remaining section housed livestock- farmers
How are the townhouses in England and France designed for their urban setting? What types of rooms are found inside and how do they differ from a house in the countryside?
Compact, townhouses. English made of wood with jettied floors. French made of stone with glass windows. Most of them had stores on the bottom with residential area above.
What architectural complex was Westminster Hall originally a part of? What was its purpose?
Once part of the Palace of Westminster, served judicial purposes
What are some of the characteristic medieval architectural elements visible on the outside of Westminster hall?
Flying buttresses, arches, and lancet windows.
What materials and techniques were used to construct the roof of Westminster hall and why?
Hammerbeam construction, made of wooden cantilevers to distribute weight
What type of building is the King's College Chapel? Who paid for its construction?
Late Gothic Masonry
Begun in 1446 under patronage of Henry VI, finished in 1515 with $ from Henry VIII
How would you describe the King's College Chapel's plan? How does its plan and interior design reflect its function?
At this time, sermon had become an important aspect of worship services, so it was built with a simpler plan and smaller area so speech could be better understood
Rectangular in plan
What are the characteristics of the English Perpendicular Style seen in King's College Chapel? How does it compare to the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris?
Perpendicular style tracery in the windows
Also has a super ornate organ loft atop the choir, but not sure if that's necessarily Perpendicular in style
Who do we think built the manor house at Boothby Pagnell?
Norman Knight and family
What materials and techniques were used to build the manor house at Boothby Pagnell?
It was a fortified manor built with stone.
What are some of the rooms and interior spaces in a manor house and how does it compare to the longhouse?
The ground floor was used for storage and the floor above was the hall and solars.
What are some of the visible features on the outside of the manor house that identify it as a medieval structure?
Buttress, lancet windows, and the placement of windows are seen.
What were the purposes of hospitals in medieval Europe?
People would seek care for illness, shelter, and food.
Who paid for the endowment of the Hospital of Hôtel-Dieu?
Founded by Nicolas Rolin (Duke) and his wife. They are found in the painting in the chapel)
What are some of the characteristics of the Hospital of Hôtel-Dieu?
Oak vaulted ceiling, stone foundation with columns on the outside
Who built Krak des Chevaliers Castle?
The Krak des Chevaliers in Syria
What is significant about the location of Krak des Chevaliers Castle?
the site was strategically located on the southern edge of the Jibal al-Alwayiyin mountain range and looked over the road between Homs and Tripoli
What are some of the defensive features of Krak des Chevaliers Castle?
inner and outer ramparts (curtain walls) eight round tower, central block, moat, slated walls, machicolations
How does the Great Hall in the Krak des Chevaliers Castle reflect the Gothic architecture of Western Europe?
pointed arches, plate tracery, decorative, rose window, wall buttresses
What is the greatest threat to the Krak des Chevaliers Castle today?
The Syrian Civil war
Who built Caernarfon Castle and why?
Edward I, as part of campaign to subdue Wales
What is significant about the location of the Caernarfon Castle? What are some of the defensive features found here?
strategic defensive location on coast and alongside river, high ground
How does the architecture in the Caernarfon Castle reference other older defensive structures?
It has visual refrences to the defensive walls of Constantinople
How did a castle and fortification walls in Carcassonne protect a medieval town and serve its economic needs?
The town walls provided fortification to withstand attacks and invasions, and the lockable gates and walls also enable the municipality to collect taxes from merchants entering the city.
Who built the Château Comtal at Carcassonne? What are some of the defensive features found in the design of the castle, walls, and gates?
Victomes de Trencaval,
-Architecture designed to allow defenders to shoot from within towers and along platforms using arrows and catapults, and to dump stones or boiling liquids on persons trying to undermine or scale the wall.
Who added the bastide to Carcasonne and why? How does a bastide differ from other medieval towns? What are some of the characteristics seen in the plan and buildings of Carcassonne?
-French King Louis IX to encourage trade and commerce
-Orthogonal plans, no walls so it could expand, uniform lot sizes, church near center, marketplace directly at center
-Rectangular grid plan and central marketplace
How did a royal charter support the growth of the city of Kraków, Poland in the 13th century?
King Boleslav grants city charter for economic growth
What are some of the buildings and characteristics of the town plan in Krakow that demonstrate these effects of supporting the city?
Free market, trade guilds, schools
What are the principle buildings and features in the urban center of Siena that reflect the development of the municipal government or Commune in Italy?
Center of municipal government and civic activities , including town council, residence of the mayor etc.
Who were the patron and architects of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople that is standing today? What forms of decoration are found in Byzantine churches like the Hagia Sophia? What sorts of images and stories are depicted inside the churches? How does this differ from the traditions of western Europe?
_Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of MiletusWas paid for by the Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora. View of mosaic in southern arm of narthex.Virgin Mary enthroned with the Christ-Child, with Constantine I and Justinian I. 10th century, reign of Basil II. Dome is supported on pendentives_
What type of building is the Doge's Palace and what are some of its most important functions?
This was both a residential palace and the seat of Venetian government (Doge = chief magistrate). Its style is a mixture of medieval European (Gothic) and Islamic architecture
What is significant about the location of the Doge's Palace?
The city's fortune was built on trade by land and by sea. Built near trade route waterfront, next to the church of San Marco.
How does the exterior of the Doge's Palace in Venice reflect Gothic influence from northern Europe?
Second floor gallery with ogival arches, tracery, sculptures (justice, Adam and Eve)
What are some of the Doge's Palace's architectural features that reflect Islamic architecture from Egypt and Persia (modern Iran)?
open interior courtyard surrounded by arcade with pointed arches, open ground level arcade; same geometric pattern created with colored stone, cresting roofline.
What type of building is the Ca' d'Oro and what purposes did it originally serve? What is it today?
The "House of Gold" was built for Marin Contarini and is decorated in the Venetian Gothic style. The exterior was said to have been covered in gold leaf, hence its name, the House of Gold.
Who built the Ca' d'Oro in Venice? How do the design and decoration of the building express family identity and social
Marin Contarini belonged to a very wealth and powerful family. When he married into the Zeno family, he built the Ca' d'Oro to replace an older Zeno family house.
Marin Contarini; made of brick with timber foundations and ties, colored stones (red and white), arch shapes used from the Doge's Palace (friends with that guy)
What decorative elements does the Ca' d'Oro borrow from the Doge's Palace? What is borrowed from northern European Gothic architecture?
Red white stones of the pointed arches in galleries on second and third floor.
What relic is housed in the church of San Marco and how was this reflected in the decoration?
Saint Mark the Evangelist
What do we know about the architects who rebuilt the church of San Marco in Venice in the 11th century? Where did they come from and how was this reflected in the plan and decoration of the church?
New church built by the Doge Domenico Contarini next to the Doges palace in 11th century. Designed by Byzantine architects from Constantinople
What additions were made to the church of San Marco in Venice in the 13th century, and how do they reflect influence from both Byzantine and Islamic architecture?
The western porches were added in the 13th century.
Byzantine Influence: Greek Cross plan with four separate domes supported on pendentives, domes have windows at base and are supported on pendentives, interior richly decorated with mosaics and marble veneer.
Why is wood a logical choice for building in Russia? What are some of the techniques used to select wood and to build churches that will last hundreds of years?
wood lasts hundreds of years and is an abundant material in Russia
larch logs resist rot, used for bottom sections
birch bark used as flashing
aspen is used for shingles, it weathers to a smooth silvery color
pine is used as the beams, it is cheap and durable
What purpose does the exterior dome serve in the Russian churches?
the exterior dome denotes to the citizens that the building functions as a church
What are some of the most important characteristics of Moscow, as a capital city and home to the Russian Orthodox church?
10th-13th centuries: early development under Slavic rulers
14th century: capital city and home to Russian Orthodox Church, construction of churches, walls and towers under tsars.
15th-16th centuries: triangular walls and towers around Cathedral Square, four roads leading to main gates.
Who was the patron of the Church of the Transfiguration at Kizhi and what event does the church commemorate?
built by Peter the Great to commemorate his victory over the Swedes
What debt does its architecture owe to Byzantine architecture (look at the plan) and what reflects new Russian developments (materials, elevation)?
Byzantine_cross plan and elaborate use of domes
Russian_ octagonal shape and bochki
22 domes displaying a pyramidal composition
What historical events led to the construction of St. Basil's in Moscow?
Built by Ivan the Fourth to commemorate the victory over the Horde at the battle of Kazan in 1552
Describe the plan, elevation, and symbolism of St. Basil.
Four octagonal chapels, four smaller square chapels.
Individual churches built around central tower.
Central sanctuary dedicated to Virgin Mary
How does the design of St. Basil's combine the traditions of wooden churches with masonry construction?
the use of the tent roof to accommodate large congregations
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