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How do Cells Communicate
Terms in this set (59)
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are peptides. Peptide cannot cross the lipid bilayer and thus cannot simply enter the cytoplasm. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them.
A gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct.
A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting like hormones outside the body of the secreting individual, to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals.
a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of a cell.
Natural regulated process of programmed cell death.
molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
insulin, oestrogen, testosterone. They are made by endocrine glands of vertebrates are made by all organ system and tissues in the body.
is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior. Signals received by cells must be transmitted effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate response
It is a type of chemical messenger which transmits signals across a chemical synapse,
are chemical substances that accelerate inhibit or otherwise affect growth.
interact with a target cell as a ligand to cell surface receptors, and/or by entering into the cell through its membrane or endocytosis
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signalling. Also are Peptides, a Peptide cannot cross the lipid bilayer and thus cannot simply enter the cytoplasm
s a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that secrete those hormones directly into the circulatory system to regulate the function of distant target organs, and the feedback loops which modulate hormone release so that homeostasis is maintained.
relating to or denoting a hormone that has effect only in the vicinity of the gland secreting it.
Occurs when the target cell detects a signal, usually in the form of a small, water-soluble molecule, via binding to a receptor protein.
is any kind of coded message sent from one organism to another, or from one place in an organism to another place
A change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone
is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialised, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
a substance that enters the body and starts a process that can cause disease.
A substance that is produced by a predecessor protein or in response to the presence of foreign material in the body and that triggers or participates in a complement reaction
A febrile condition; an increase in body temperature that is higher than the normal, usually as caused by the body's response to a pyrogen inducing upward displacement of the set point of the hypothalamic thermoregulatory centre.
s the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macro-molecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides
he process or the state wherein an negative agent (such as pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, prions, viroids, nematodes and helminths) invade and multiple in the body tissues of the host.
The clear, slightly alkaline, bodily fluid bathing body tissues containing mostly of white blood cells,
group of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the immune system recognise foreign substances. MHC proteins are found in all higher vertebrates. In human beings the complex is also called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system.
A type of polymorphonuclear leukocyte characterised by having multilobed nucleus, presence of cytoplasmic granules that render the cell neutral or faintly pink when stained with usual dyes (e.g. H&E stain), and whose immune function is primarily phagocytosis
infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal physiology of a multicellular animal or plant.
An antigen that causes an allergic reaction in an organism.
A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces
cell mediated immunity
is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen
A highly specialised white blood cell found in the skin, mucous, and lymphoid tissues that initiates a primary immune response by activating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines
is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction
A bodily defence reaction in response to the presence of a foreign substance (i.e. antigen) inside the body.
is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
A small bean-shaped structure that is part of the body's immune system. it filters substances that travel through the lymphatic fluid.
found in connective tissue that contains numerous basophilic granules and releases substances such as heparin and histamine in response to injury or inflammation of bodily tissues.
Any of the numerous Y-shaped gamma globulin proteins found in the blood or lymph, and produced by B cells as an immune defence against foreign agents (antigens)
Any of the lymphocytes that develop into plasma cells in the presence of a specific antigen. The plasma cells produce antibodies that attack or neutralise the antigen in what is called the humoral immune response . B cells mature in the bone marrow before being released into the blood
production of daughter cells all arising originally from a single cell.
An abnormal condition of an organism which interrupts the normal bodily functions that often leads to feeling of pain and weakness, and usually associated with symptoms and signs
is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiotic), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter
is a glycoprotein, comprised of a glycan and a protein constituent.
innate immune response
refers to nonspecific defence mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen's appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body.
A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. A key player in the immune response to foreign invaders of the body, such as infectious microorganisms. They are normally found in the liver, spleen, and connective tissues of the body.
any small, long-lived lymphocyte that has previously encountered a given antigen and that on re-exposure to the same antigen rapidly initiates the immune response
A type of immunity or resistance developed in an organism by its own production of antibodies in response to an exposure to an antigen, a pathogen or to a vaccine.
A passive immunity acquired by means of injection of serum containing antibodies to an individual who may have been infected with a particular pathogen. Supplement. Passive immunity is typically short lived (compared to active immunity). It may be naturally acquired or artificially acquired
It is a type of virus classified by scientists as a retrovirus, which causes disease by infecting and killing blood cells (known as CD4 T-cells) central to the body's immune system
are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
A disease in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissues, leading to the deterioration and in some cases to the destruction of such tissue.
s defined as the stage of infection with HIV-1, or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), in which an infected person's immune system has become so weak that he or she is at risk of developing other infections or cancers
immune deficiency disease
s a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
protection that an individual inherits to fight infection
Atopy is the genetic (inherited) tendency to develop allergic diseases. People with atopy are said to be atopic. When atopic people are exposed to allergens they can develop an immune reaction that leads to allergic inflammation (redness and swelling).
is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not
A process which renders to organism immunity to a specific disease by exposing the organism to an antigen to promote the production of antibodies to a particular antigen.
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