MGT 390 - Motivation

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Motivation
The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Three elements of motivation
1. Intensity - how hard a person tries (effort)
2. Direction - the orientation that benefits the organization
3. Persistence - a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal.
True or false: motivation is a personal trait.
False.
Drive Theory
Unsatisfied needs create tension which drives the search for behavior. This satisfies the need and reduces the tension.
Need Theories
1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)
2. ERG Theory (Alderfer)
3. McClelland's Theory of Needs
Job and Organizational Context Theories
1. Two-Factor or Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg)
2. Job Characteristics Model
3. Equity Theory
Managerial Behaviors Theory
1. Goal-Setting Theory
2. Reinforcement Theory
3. Expectancy Theory (Integrating Theory)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Lower-order needs satisfied extrinsically
1. Physiological - hunger, shelter, thirst, sex, etc.
2. Safety - security and protection from physical and emotional harm

Higher-order needs satisfied intrinsically
1. Social - affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
2. Esteem - self-respect, autonomy, achievement (internal), status, recognition, affection (external)
3. Self-actualization - the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment
Characteristics of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- Follows a satisfaction-progression hypothesis: once a need is substantially satisfied it no longer motivates and the next need in the hierarchy becomes the motivating need
- Research does not generally validate the theory
- Maslow provided no empirical substantiation, and several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it
- Has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers
ERG Theory
Alderfer reworked Maslow's Theory to align it with empirical research
1. Existence: providing our basic material existence requirements. They include Maslow's physiological and safety needs.
2. Relatedness: The desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others. They align with Maslow's social need.
3. Growth needs: An intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow's esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization.
How is ERG different from Maslow's?
1. More than one need may be operative at the same time
2. If the gratification of a higher-level need is frustrated, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases (this is the frustration-regression dimension of ERG)
3. ERG theory does not assume a rigid hierarchy exists. Ex. Working on Growth, even if Relatedness and Existence needs aren't satisfied
4. More consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Probably the best and most valid of the need theories. Need for Achievement, Need for Power, Need for Affiliation.
Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Those high in this strive for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success.
Characteristics of High Achievers
1. They seek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems
2. They want to receive rapid feedback on their performance so they can tell easily whether they are improving or not
3. They like moderately challenging goals. They are not gamblers; they dislike succeeding by chance
4. Perform best when they perceive their probability of success as 50-50
5. They like to set goals that require stretching themselves a little
Need for Power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise; the desire to have impact, to be influential, and to control others.
Characteristics of individuals with a high need for power
1. They enjoy being "in charge"
2. Strive for influence over others
3. Prefer to be placed into competitive and status-oriented situations
3. Tend to be more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance
Need for Affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. This need has received the least attention from researchers.
Characteristics of individuals with a high need for affiliation
1. They strive for friendship
2. Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones
3. Desire relationships involving a high degree of mutual understanding
Which of McClelland's needs are associated with being a good manager?
High need for power, low need for affiliation.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Motivation-Hygiene Theory)
- Deals primarily with the job satisfaction organizational outcome
- Asks the question: "What do people want from their jobs?"
- He asked people to describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs
Results of employees Two-Factor Theory
- Satisfied employees tended to cite intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement.
- Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions.
Hygiene Factors
Quality of supervision, rate of pay, company policies, working conditions, relations with others, job security.
Motivational Factors
Career advancement, personal growth, recognition, responsibility, achievement.
What happens with managers eliminate job satisfaction?
They may not necessarily motivate employees.
Removing dissatisfying hygiene characteristics from a job does not necessarily do what?
Make the job satisfying, it just makes those intrinsic things adequate.
What happens when hygiene factors are adequate?
People will not be dissatisfied, but they won't necessarily have high job satisfaction. Intrinsic motivating factors must be present to achieve that.
Doing what is largely attributed to Herzberg's findings and recommendations?
Vertically expanding jobs to allow workers greater responsibility.
Job Characteristics Model
Core dimensions of job -> critical psychological states -> personal work outcomes.
Five Job Characteristics
-Skill variety: degree to which task involves many activities or requires several skills/talents
-Task identity: extent to which job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work
-Task significance: extent that job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of others
-Autonomy: Extent to which job provides substantial freedom and discretion regarding how work is done
-Feedback: degree to which employee receives clear and direct feedback about work performance
Psychological States
-Experienced meaningfulness: extent to which employees perceive their work to be valuable and worthwhile
-Experienced responsibility: extent employee feels personally responsible for quantity and quality of work
-Knowledge of results: extent employee receives feedback so they know and understand how well they are doing on the job
Motivating Potential Score
A predictive index that suggests the motivating potential in a job. Higher scores = more motivating.
Equity Theory
- Distributive justice: the perceived fairness of the amount & allocation of rewards among individuals.
- Procedural justice: the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
What does distributive justice have a greater influence on?
Employee satisfaction.
What does procedural justice have an effect on?
An employee's organizational commitment, trust in their boss, and intention to turnover.
Employees with high procedural justice do what?
View their bosses and the organization positively even if they're dissatisfied with pay, promotions, and other personal outcomes.
Goal Setting Theory
Intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed. Specific difficult goals typically produce a higher level of output.
Goal Setting Theory works best when what conditions exist?
1. Feedback is provided
2. Individual has goal commitment
3. Individual has high self-efficacy
4. Rewards accompany goal accomplishment
Reinforcement Theory
Behavior is a function of its consequences.
Positive Reinforcement
A pleasant consequence in the form of a reward to increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.
Punishment
Attempt to discourage (or drive to extinction) a target behavior by applying negative outcomes.
Negative Reinforcement
Withholding an adverse consequence in order to increase the frequency of a behavior.
Expectancy Theory
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of one's expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and of the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. It explains why a lot of workers merely do the minimum necessary to get by.
When an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes what?
1. Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal
2. A good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards
3. The rewards will satisfy his/her personal goals
What is the key to understanding expectancy theory?
An individual's goals create a linkage between effort and performance, performance and rewards, and rewards and goal satisfaction.