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Forces that Shape Earth
Terms in this set (52)
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
type of stress, pulls on the crust, stretching rock so it becomes thinner in the middle.
type of stress, squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
type of stress, pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.
a change in the shape of rock caused by stress.
change in rock that is NOT permanent ; when stress is removed rock goes back to original shape.
creates a permanent change in the shape of a rock ; usually occurs when rocks are weak or hot.
collision between two continental plates, landform created by compression.
one plate goes under another during collision forming a deep trench where the two plates meet.
curved line of volcanoes that forms parallel to plate boundaries.
tension causes oceanic crust to spread allowing hot rock from mantle to raise creating high ridges
When divergent boundaries occur within a continent, they cause enormous splits in the crust.
when plates slide horizontally past each other they form a fault, or a break in the rock of the crust.
an area of many fractured pieces of crust along a large fault
vibrations in the ground that result from movement along faults, or breaks in Earth's lithosphere.
form when forces pull rocks apart along a divergent fault
2 blocks of rock slide horizontally past each other in opposite directions.
force pushes 2 blocks of rock together with the rock above the fault.
point beneath earth's surface where rock under stress breaks to cause an earthquake.
point on earth's surface directly above the focus.
waves that carry energy of an earthquake away from the focus (3 types).
P waves (Primary waves)
compression waves that travel through solids & liquids, compressing & expanding the material they pass through TEMPORARILY changing the volume.
S waves (Secondary waves)
only travel through solids, temporarily changing the shape but not the volume of the material they pass through
move slower than P waves
move slower than P & S waves, but can produce severe ground movement with a wave-like motion.
weak spot in Earth's crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface.
molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases & water from the mantle.
Magma that reaches Earth's surface.
form along plate boundaries as the result of fractures allowing magma to reach the surface.
Ring of Fire
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
string of island created by volcanoes near boundaries where 2 oceanic plates collide, one sinking beneath the other.
inside a volcano, the system of passageways through which magma flows. (includes; magma chamber, pipe, vent, lava flows & crater)
area where material from deep within the mantle rises then melts, forming magma, a volcano forms above a hot spot when magma erupts through the crust.
magma has low silica content, flows easily & erupts quietly with gases bubbling out gently & lava oozing quietly producing both pahoehoe & aa.
Fast moving hot lava.
lava that is cooler & slower moving.
has magma high in silica with trapped gasses building up pressure until they explode with incredible force creating a pyroclastic flow.
An explosive volcanic eruption of ash, cinders, magma bombs, and gases.
not active, but may become active.
unlikely to erupt again.
lava flows out gradually building a wide, gently sloping mountain.
cinder cone volcano
when lava has high viscosity it produces ash, cinders & bombs which all add up around the vent in a steep, cone shaped
A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials
high, level area that has been built up over time from lava seeping out of several cracks then traveling a distance before cooling and solidifying.
huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain.
forms when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe; softer rock around pipe wears away exposing hard rock.
Formed when magma forces itself across rock layers and hardens
formed when magma squeezes between horizontal layers of rock.
forms when an uplift pushes a batholith or smaller body of hardened magma toward the surface.
when magma a few kilometers beneath Earth's surface heats underground water(2 types).
forms when ground water is heated by a nearby body of magma or hot rock & eventually rises to the surface collecting in natural pools.
A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks. ~ can heat homes & make electricity.
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