122 terms

AP Biology: Cell Respiration

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How many NADH are produced during glycolysis?
CoA
Pyruvate combines with what Pre-Krebs cycle?
Acetyl CoA
Pyruvate becomes what before the Krebs cycle?
1 CO2 and 1 NADH
Besides actetyl CoA, what is created in the Pre-Krebs cycle?
OAA
The Krebs cycle begins when Acetyl CoA combines with what (abreviation)?
citrate
The first product of the Krebs cycle is what?
1 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 FADH2, 3 NADH
What's created in the Krebs cycle that doesn't recirculate?
cytochromes
Carrier proteins on the electron transport chain that contain iron
3
How much ATP can NADH produce?
2
How much ATP can FADH2 produce?
36
How much ATP could cellular respiration ideally create?
intermembrane space
H+ ions accumulate where in the mitochondria?
inner membrane
Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs where in the mitochondria?
matrix
The Krebs cycle occurs where in the mitochondria?
matrix
The Pre-Krebs cycle occurs where in the mitochondria?
lactate
In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to what?
NADH gives up its electrons to form NAD+
What must happen for glycolysis to start in lactic acid fermentation, regarding energy?
liver
In mammals, most lactate is sent to where in the body?
inner membrane
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondria?
bacteria, fungi, and plants
What organisms undergo alcohol fermentation?
1 acetaldehyde and 1 CO2
For each pyruvate, what chemicals are produced in alcohol fermentation?
1 ethanol and 1 NAD+
For each acetaldehyde, what chemicals are produced in alcohol fermentation?
2
How many ATP does an organism undergoing alcohol fermentation produce per 2 pyruvate?
the citric acid cycle
What completes the energy-yielding oxidaton of organic molecules?
2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2H2O, and 2 NADH + 2H+
What does Glycolysis produce?
pyruvate and NADH
What may enter the mitochondria for respiration?
a mitochondrion
What consists of an intermembrane space between the two membranes to house H+?
H+
What is housed that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the electron transport chain?
oxidative phosphorylation
What is a chemiosmotic mechanism in which a proton motive force drives protons through ATP synthases located in the membrane?
redox reactions
what are oxidatin-reduction reactions
redox-reaction
What reactions involve the partial or complete transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant on another?
oxidation
What is the loss of electrons from one substance?
reduction
What is the addition of electrons to another substance?
reducing agent
What is a synonym for an electron donor?
reducing agent
The substance that loses electrons becomes oxidized and acts as a what to the substance that gains electrons?
oxidizing agent
By gaining electrons, a substance acts as a what and becomes reduced?
oxidizing agent
What is a synonym for an electron acceptor?
oxygen
Chemical energy is released in a redox reaction that relocates electrons closer to what?
two hydrogen atoms
What are removed by enzymes called dehydrogenases during the oxidation of glucose?
NAD+
the two electrons and one proton are passes to what coenzyme, reducing it to NADH?
an electron transport chain
Energy from respiration is slowly released in a series of small steps as electrons are passed from NADH down what?
the citric acid cycle
What is located in the mitochondrial matrix?
pyruvate; carbon dioxide
The citric acid cycle converts a derivative of what into what?
dehydrogenase enzymes
What enzymes transfer electrons to NAD+
NADH
What passes electrons to the electron transport chain?
oxidative phosphorylation
The energyreleased though a chain of redox reactions is used to synthesize ATP by what?
the energy-investment phase and the energy pay-off phase
What are the phases of Glycolysis
kinases
What transfer phosphate groups?
a dehydrogenase
What oxidizes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
a dehydrogenase
What enzyme reduces NAD+?
pyruvate
What is actively transported into the mitochondrion?
acetate; NAD+; NADH
the remaining two-carbon group is oxidized to form what with the accompanying reduction of what to what?
acetyl CoA
What does coenzyme A form when it's attached to the acetate by an unstable bond?
oxaloacetate
During the citric acid cycle, citrate is progressively decomposed back to what?
two carbon
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, what enters in the reduced form from acetyl CoA
three; one
During each turn of the citric acid cycle, how many NADH and how many FADH2 are formed?
one
How many ATp are made by substrate-level phosphorylation?
two
There are how many turns of the citric acid cycle for each glucose molecule oxidized?
hexokinase
What enzyme phosphoylizes glucose?
phosphoglucoisomerase
What turns glucose-6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate?
Oxaloacetate
What bonds with Acetyl CoA to create a product?
Citrate
Acetyl CoA creates what product?
the cytochrome
What is a chain of proteins that will accept NADH and FADH2?
NADH
Where do the protons come from on the electron transport chain?
electron transport chains
What are embedded in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane?
tightly bound, nonprotein prosthetic groups
Most components of the electron transport chain are proteins with what?
cytochromes
What are proteins with an iron-containing heme group?
cytochromes
After the transfer of electrons, electrons pass down a series of molecules called what?
the last cytochrome
What passes electrons to oxygen?
FADH2
What adds its electrons to the chain at a lower energy chain?
ATP synthase
What is a protein complex embedded in the inner membrane
ATP synthase
What uses the energy of a proton (H+) gradient to make ATP
the electron transport chain
What creates the proton gradient?
exergonic redox reactions
What reactions produce the H+ gradient that drives the production of ATP in mitochondria?
transport molecules, make ATP, and rotate flagella
Prokaryotes use H+ gradients generated across their plasma membranes to what?
substrate-level phosphorylation
fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of organic nutrients to generate ATP by what?
glycolysis with NAD+
Both fermentation and respiration use what as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate?
pyruvate or acetaldhyde
to oxidize NADH back to NAD+, fermentation uses what as the final electron acceptor?
faculative anaerobes
What anaerobes can make ATP by fermentation or respiration, depending upon the availability of oxygen?
fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
What can all by used by cellular respiration to make ATP?
proteins
What are digested into amino acids, which then deaminated, and can enter into respiration at several sites?
glycerol and fatty acids
What is yielded by by the digestion of fats?
beta oxidation
Fatty acids are broken down by what to acetyl CoA?
phosphoglucoisomerase
What enzyme turns glucose 6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate?
exergonic
In the first reaction of the glycolysis, glucose recieves a phosphate group from ATP. This reaction is what?
the citric acid cycle
The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide is called what?
the citric acid cycle
The carbon dioxide that animal cells breathe out is created by what process?
ATP
A drug destroys the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. If you incubate the isolated mitochondria in a solution of the drug, what wouldn't be made during transport of electrons down the respiratory chain?
oxidative phosphorization
What process includes the electon transport chain and chemiosmosis?
energy is released
What happens when electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom?
oxygen
In cellular respiration, what becomes reduced?
a substrate that is phosphorylated
What kind of substrate has an increased reactivity and is primed to do work?
three ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation produces how many ATP per NADH that's oxidized?
substrate-level phosphorylation
What process is the energy source for faculative anaerobes under aerobic conditions?
mobile electron carriers
Q and cytochrome c are what?
the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
What causes a multienzyme complex to remove a carboxyl group, transfer electrons to NAD+, and attach to a coenzyme?
two
How many molecules of CO2 are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle?
ATP and NAD+
From an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
two
in alcoholic fermentation, how much alcohol is formed with each molecule of glucose?
fats
What makes the most ATP per gram because they are highly reduced compounds?
intermediates
Fats and proteins can be converted to what of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle?
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
Which enzyme would use NAD+ as a coenzyme?
fructose bisphosphate
Which compound has the highest free energy (will produce the most ATP when oxidized?
a reduction reaction
acetaldehyde (C2H4O) to ethanol (C2H6O) is what type of reaction?
2 pyruvate, 2 CoA, and 2 NAD+
What are the inputs to the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 CO2, and 2 NADH + 2H+
What are the outputs of the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?
glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 4 ADP + (P)i
What are the inputs of glycolysis?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 ADP + (P)i, 6 NAD+, and 2 FAD
What are the inputs of the citric acid cycle?
2 CoA, 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH + 6H+, and 2 FADH2
What are the outputs of the citric acid cycle?
10 NADH + H+, 2 FADH2, H+ + O2, and 34 ADP + (P)i
What are the inputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
10 NAD+, 2 FAD, H2O, 34 ATP
What are the outputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
2 pyruvate and 2 NADH
What is the input of fermentation (doesn't include the input of glycolyis)
2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 2 ethanol and 2 CO2 or 2 lactate
What are the outputs of fermentation?
the mitochondrial matrix
Where is the ATP synthase?
the intermembrane space
Where is the proton gradient?
NADH+H+ to NAD+
In the I of the electron transport chain, what turns into what?
2H+ + 1/2 O2 to H2O
In the IV of the elctron transport chain, what turns into what?
2; 0; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Glycolysis?
2; 0; 0
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Conversion to Acetyl CoA?
6; 2; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in the Citric Acid Cycle?
3
How many ATP are generated from one NADH?
2
How many ATP are generated from one FADH2?
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