Besides actetyl CoA, what is created in the Pre-Krebs cycle?
The Krebs cycle begins when Acetyl CoA combines with what (abreviation)?
The first product of the Krebs cycle is what?
1 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 FADH2, 3 NADH
What's created in the Krebs cycle that doesn't recirculate?
Carrier proteins on the electron transport chain that contain iron
How much ATP can NADH produce?
How much ATP can FADH2 produce?
How much ATP could cellular respiration ideally create?
H+ ions accumulate where in the mitochondria?
Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs where in the mitochondria?
The Krebs cycle occurs where in the mitochondria?
The Pre-Krebs cycle occurs where in the mitochondria?
In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to what?
NADH gives up its electrons to form NAD+
What must happen for glycolysis to start in lactic acid fermentation, regarding energy?
In mammals, most lactate is sent to where in the body?
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondria?
bacteria, fungi, and plants
What organisms undergo alcohol fermentation?
1 acetaldehyde and 1 CO2
For each pyruvate, what chemicals are produced in alcohol fermentation?
1 ethanol and 1 NAD+
For each acetaldehyde, what chemicals are produced in alcohol fermentation?
How many ATP does an organism undergoing alcohol fermentation produce per 2 pyruvate?
the citric acid cycle
What completes the energy-yielding oxidaton of organic molecules?
2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2H2O, and 2 NADH + 2H+
What does Glycolysis produce?
pyruvate and NADH
What may enter the mitochondria for respiration?
What consists of an intermembrane space between the two membranes to house H+?
What is housed that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the electron transport chain?
What is a chemiosmotic mechanism in which a proton motive force drives protons through ATP synthases located in the membrane?
what are oxidatin-reduction reactions
What reactions involve the partial or complete transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant on another?
What is the loss of electrons from one substance?
What is the addition of electrons to another substance?
What is a synonym for an electron donor?
The substance that loses electrons becomes oxidized and acts as a what to the substance that gains electrons?
By gaining electrons, a substance acts as a what and becomes reduced?
What is a synonym for an electron acceptor?
Chemical energy is released in a redox reaction that relocates electrons closer to what?
two hydrogen atoms
What are removed by enzymes called dehydrogenases during the oxidation of glucose?
the two electrons and one proton are passes to what coenzyme, reducing it to NADH?
an electron transport chain
Energy from respiration is slowly released in a series of small steps as electrons are passed from NADH down what?
the citric acid cycle
What is located in the mitochondrial matrix?
pyruvate; carbon dioxide
The citric acid cycle converts a derivative of what into what?
What enzymes transfer electrons to NAD+
What passes electrons to the electron transport chain?
The energyreleased though a chain of redox reactions is used to synthesize ATP by what?
the energy-investment phase and the energy pay-off phase
What are the phases of Glycolysis
What transfer phosphate groups?
What oxidizes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
What enzyme reduces NAD+?
What is actively transported into the mitochondrion?
acetate; NAD+; NADH
the remaining two-carbon group is oxidized to form what with the accompanying reduction of what to what?
What does coenzyme A form when it's attached to the acetate by an unstable bond?
During the citric acid cycle, citrate is progressively decomposed back to what?
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, what enters in the reduced form from acetyl CoA
During each turn of the citric acid cycle, how many NADH and how many FADH2 are formed?
How many ATp are made by substrate-level phosphorylation?
There are how many turns of the citric acid cycle for each glucose molecule oxidized?
What enzyme phosphoylizes glucose?
What turns glucose-6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate?
What bonds with Acetyl CoA to create a product?
Acetyl CoA creates what product?
What is a chain of proteins that will accept NADH and FADH2?
Where do the protons come from on the electron transport chain?
electron transport chains
What are embedded in the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane?
tightly bound, nonprotein prosthetic groups
Most components of the electron transport chain are proteins with what?
What are proteins with an iron-containing heme group?
After the transfer of electrons, electrons pass down a series of molecules called what?
the last cytochrome
What passes electrons to oxygen?
What adds its electrons to the chain at a lower energy chain?
What is a protein complex embedded in the inner membrane
What uses the energy of a proton (H+) gradient to make ATP
the electron transport chain
What creates the proton gradient?
exergonic redox reactions
What reactions produce the H+ gradient that drives the production of ATP in mitochondria?
transport molecules, make ATP, and rotate flagella
Prokaryotes use H+ gradients generated across their plasma membranes to what?
fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of organic nutrients to generate ATP by what?
glycolysis with NAD+
Both fermentation and respiration use what as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate?
pyruvate or acetaldhyde
to oxidize NADH back to NAD+, fermentation uses what as the final electron acceptor?
What anaerobes can make ATP by fermentation or respiration, depending upon the availability of oxygen?
fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
What can all by used by cellular respiration to make ATP?
What are digested into amino acids, which then deaminated, and can enter into respiration at several sites?
glycerol and fatty acids
What is yielded by by the digestion of fats?
Fatty acids are broken down by what to acetyl CoA?
What enzyme turns glucose 6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate?
In the first reaction of the glycolysis, glucose recieves a phosphate group from ATP. This reaction is what?
the citric acid cycle
The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide is called what?
the citric acid cycle
The carbon dioxide that animal cells breathe out is created by what process?
A drug destroys the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. If you incubate the isolated mitochondria in a solution of the drug, what wouldn't be made during transport of electrons down the respiratory chain?
What process includes the electon transport chain and chemiosmosis?
energy is released
What happens when electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom?
In cellular respiration, what becomes reduced?
a substrate that is phosphorylated
What kind of substrate has an increased reactivity and is primed to do work?
Oxidative phosphorylation produces how many ATP per NADH that's oxidized?
What process is the energy source for faculative anaerobes under aerobic conditions?
mobile electron carriers
Q and cytochrome c are what?
the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
What causes a multienzyme complex to remove a carboxyl group, transfer electrons to NAD+, and attach to a coenzyme?
How many molecules of CO2 are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle?
ATP and NAD+
From an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
in alcoholic fermentation, how much alcohol is formed with each molecule of glucose?
What makes the most ATP per gram because they are highly reduced compounds?
Fats and proteins can be converted to what of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle?
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
Which enzyme would use NAD+ as a coenzyme?
Which compound has the highest free energy (will produce the most ATP when oxidized?
a reduction reaction
acetaldehyde (C2H4O) to ethanol (C2H6O) is what type of reaction?
2 pyruvate, 2 CoA, and 2 NAD+
What are the inputs to the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 CO2, and 2 NADH + 2H+
What are the outputs of the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA?
glucose, 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 4 ADP + (P)i
What are the inputs of glycolysis?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 ADP + (P)i, 6 NAD+, and 2 FAD
What are the inputs of the citric acid cycle?
2 CoA, 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH + 6H+, and 2 FADH2
What are the outputs of the citric acid cycle?
10 NADH + H+, 2 FADH2, H+ + O2, and 34 ADP + (P)i
What are the inputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
10 NAD+, 2 FAD, H2O, 34 ATP
What are the outputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
2 pyruvate and 2 NADH
What is the input of fermentation (doesn't include the input of glycolyis)
2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 2 ethanol and 2 CO2 or 2 lactate
What are the outputs of fermentation?
the mitochondrial matrix
Where is the ATP synthase?
the intermembrane space
Where is the proton gradient?
NADH+H+ to NAD+
In the I of the electron transport chain, what turns into what?
2H+ + 1/2 O2 to H2O
In the IV of the elctron transport chain, what turns into what?
2; 0; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Glycolysis?
2; 0; 0
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Conversion to Acetyl CoA?
6; 2; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in the Citric Acid Cycle?