Social Anthropology - Exam 3
Kinship, Sex, Gender, Social Stratification, Socio-political organisation, Economics, Consumption, Ecological Anthropology.
Terms in this set (78)
Three levels of Kinship
Genetic Relationships ( as viewed by western science)
"Biological" relationships ( Culturally defined ideas about biology, Folk concepts - blood)
Social Relationships - ( Status, Norms, Roles - As extrapolated by Anthropologists)
Malaysian Kinship Example
Children have no biological connection at birth to parents. They are conceived by spirits. By feeding the child, it becomes more related.
Nature of Kinship cross cultrually
Kinship is understood cross-culturally, not because it has a single defining feature in all societies, but because similar sets of features are found in every society, without any single feature being necessary as being the the defining one.
Relationships between persons based on descent or marriage... kinship relations in general entail the idea of rights and obligations.
Areas of Study: Group Structure, Alliance, Classification.
Sociality is about collective morality; norms, rules, laws about how individuals should behave in relation to others.
∆ - Male
O - Female
= - Marriage
l - Descendant
Ø - Deceased
A permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry.
Kinship is Bilateral
Reckoned through both the mother's and father's kin.
Consanguine descendants related through either the mother's descent group or the father's descent group. One line of descent makes it possible to form a distinct group.
Individual automatically joins their mothers descent group.It is a kinship system that in which only a mother's relatives are significant.
A kinship system that in which only a father's relatives are significant.
A permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry.
Bilateral Society vs Cognatic Descent
Bilateral Society - A society that traces kin connections over the generations through both males and females but without formation of descent groups.
Cognatic Descent - Descent based on any combination of male or female links.
A group of individuals who can trace their descent to a common ancestor.
A group of individuals who believe they share common ancestor but can not trace the genealogical connections. ( Founding ancestor is often a mythological being such as a Totem)
Patrilocal Postmarital Residence
At marriage the couple lives with or near the groom's kin.
Reasons for more Patrilineal societies
Unilineages are useful for group formation.
In areas with pressure on resources, warfare becomes important. In these societies it is an advantage to have allied males living together.
A society in which women hold the dominant authority; female dominance.
Descent traced through females, but males still dominate, hold authority, control property.
Marry outside of one's social group.
Marry inside of one's social group.
Biological differences between men and women.
Cultural construction of male and female identity.
What sex/sexes you desire to be with.
Primary Sex Differences
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Other biological differences. E.g. Waist-to-hip ratio, hormones, personality, hair thickness distribution.
Performative Sex differences
Posture, Stance, Body language,
Decorative Sex differences
Household duties, public relations.
Native American Berdache
People in Native American tribes who had 'Two Spirits', they had a specific role in their society, and identified with not only their sex but another gender. Eg Feminine women, feminine man, masculine man, masculine women.
Unequal distribution of social rewards (valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women reflecting their different social positions in a social hierarchy.
Differences of secondary sex characteristics in any species.
Division of labour
Part of role - tasks and activities associated with particular status positions.
What is Public/Private dichotomy (division into two opposite groups) and who created the concept.
In domestic activities - female labour dominates,while in extra-domestic activities male labour dominates. Theory by Michele Rosaldo.
Gender Status and contribution to economy
Ernestine Friedl says that gender stratification is directly related to the degree in which females directly contribute to the economy. In foraging and horticultural societies where women contribute substantially to the economy gender stratification is reduced.
Relative social position.
A system dividing all of the hindu society into endogamous groups with hereditary membership, which are simultaneously separated and connected with each other through these characteristics:
- Separation regarding marriage and contact
- Division of labour in that group at least in theory, represents a particular positions
-Hierarchy , which ranks the group on a scale dividing them into high and low castes.
An endogamous, hereditary occupational groups, often associated with lineages, clans, or tribal groups (based on hinduism).
Caste categories, The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
"the untouchables" Had to do lowest tasks like cleaning the streets, etc. So ritually impure that standing in one's shadow was considered impure.
Group of people who have similar social and economic status within a social hierarchy.
Marx and class
Class status related to property.
Bourgeois (capitalists) - Control means of production ( tools and raw material)
Petite- Bourgeois - Merchants and farmers who own means of production but do not buy others labour.
Proletariat - Working class who sell their own labour.
Weber and class
Class Status related to power which is influenced by:
Class - position in a capitalist market ( which affects life chances)
Status - Social honour or prestige
Party - Political power
Bourdieu and cultural classes
Power related to cultural capital
Cultural Capital - Cultural knowledge, skills, and education that give an individual prestige and power. An important form of cultural capital is taste ( the ability to discern what is good quality, or a high aesthetic standard, learned through education or social origins.)
Politics - organisation of power.
The ability to force ones will on others behaviour.
Every genuine form of domination that implies a minimum of voluntary compliance - social legitimate dominance.
Hobbes " War of everyone against everyone"
Strong centralised government is needed because of "the condition of man...is a condition of war of everyone against everyone."
Melanesian Big Man Political Organisation.
Kin-shaped based, egalitarian achieved political status, relies on authority, Big men have no coercive power.
Authority is based on reciprocal exchange of economic surplus. In Papua New Guinea, they exchange pigs.
Production, distribution, consumption of resources.
Actor is a maximizer of value who makes rational choices among scarce resources in the "Market".
Gift-economy versus Market-economy
A set of trade relations among Trobrianders (Kiriwina Islands, Melanesia) involving the giving away of shell artifacts( Soulava necklaces, muvali armbands) with the objective of displaying prestige and reinforcing alliances. They prepare all year for this.
The transfer of goods and services between two people or groups based on their role obligations. A form of non-market exchange
Exchange with no time frame, or specific value( knowledge that they would return favour if they could as a result of trust and a long history of exchange). For example: favours between family and friends. Moral obligation is created with exchange.
Exchange with expected time frame, and expected value. For example: Big Man - Moka pig exchange. Used to to create new relationships.
Exchange where no reciprocity is expected. Exchange partners are distant socially. Profit is the aim. For example: Stock exchange or a market place.
Obligation to form bond it the difference between market and gift.
Northwest coast of America - Native Americans.
Wealth on form of blankets.
Area of negative reciprocity.
A system of exchange in which a centralized authority collects goods and services from a group of people and redistributes them. Acts as a levelling mechanism, prevents people from gaining authority and overturning authority. E.g. Feudal Japan
Spheres of exchange
√Dependant persons e.g. Wife, or slave like person, becomes part of family until they are of certain age
√Prestige e.g. cows, copper rods
√Subsistence e.g. hoe, goat, yam
- Exchanging down is seen as immoral
- E.g. Tiv of Nigeria
- Can exchange within sphere
Medium of exchange, Standard of value, Store of value. Allows for impersonal exchange
The uses and meanings of goods and services that satisfy desires and needs.
Products that can be exchanged for money or other products. Build, manipulate, and maintain social relationships.
Products that can be exchanged for money or other products
Mode of production
Way of organizing production - a set of social relations through which labour is deployed to wrest energy by means of tools, skills, and knowledge. Relations of production and means of production.
Mode of subsistence
Dominant production techniques involved in subsistence ( adaptive strategy).
The organised system for the creation of goods and services.
A system formed by interactions within a community of different species of organisms, including humans, and it's biophysical environment. Characterized by flows of information, energy, and matter.
The study of relationships between a population of humans and their biophysical environment.
Claim that those in very challenging environments, have advanced less. That an environment entirely determines the way people behave and live there. The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
The view that emphasizes human culture as more important than physical environment in shaping human actions. Culture determines culture. Environments can only limit what cannot occur. E.g. Reserve mainly in Arizona, Navajo are sheep herders, and Hopi are farmers.
Theory: Cultural Ecology