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25 terms

Chemistry 521A - Solutions & Solubility

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solubility
the mass of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature
saturated solution
a solution in which no more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature
unsaturated solution
a solution in which more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature
miscible
describes substances that are able to combine with each other in any proportion
immiscible
describes substances that are not able to combine with each other in any proportion
diluted solution
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
concentrated solution
a solution that contains a large amount of solute
supersaturated solution
contains more solute that it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
Complete ionic equation
shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions
Net ionic equation
shows only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
spectator ion
an ion that appears on both sides of an equation and is not directly involved in the reaction
surface tension
the inward force or pull that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
surfactant
any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension; a wetting agent
solution
a homogeneous mixture; made of solutes dissolved in a solution
solution
Mixed Kool-aid is an example of this
solute
dissolved particles in a solution
aqueous solution
water that contains dissolved substances
solvent
the dissolving medium of a solution
solvation
the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by water
temperature
factors that affect how quickly a solute will dissolve include surface area of dissolving particles, stirring, and ______________
hydrogen bond
intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, on an adjacent molecule; example sodium hydroxide
electrolyte
a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state
non-electrolyte
a compound that does not conduct an electric current in either aqueous solution or molten state; example table sugar
weak electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions ex: ammonia
strong electrolyte
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions ex: salt