Ohio AIR History Review Concepts
Terms in this set (42)
What are the Progressive Amendments
Amendments that attempted to reform problems during the Progressive Era include:
16 - income tax (to make income more fair)
17 - direct election of senators (instead of state legislators choosing them)
18 - prohibition (because alcohol was a problem)
19 - women right to vote
Why would the US want to practice imperialism?
-new markets for US goods
-new sources of raw materials
-gain power and prestige
-naval bases locations
-protect US trade
What happened during the Spanish American War?
led to by Imperialism and protecting US trade and Cuba. Teddy Roosevelt fought in this war. Started by yellow journalism, imperialism and the explosion of the Maine.
Where was the US involved in imperialism and why?
-Hawaii-increase trade and protect US businesses
-Cuba-protect US trade
-China- Open Door Policy
-Philippines- got this land from Span.Am. war, war with locals, wanted independence
What were conditions in factories like in the early 1900s?
Why were the conditions in factories allowed to go on?
Laissez Faire economics (free trade/capitalism, no government intervention). Bosses wanted to make as much money as possible.
What changes were made during the Progressive Era?
-Limit power of monopolies (anti-trust laws)
-Clean up Cities and problems of industrialization
Why did unions go on strike?
to get better wages and shorter hours
What are some positives and negatives of monopolies?
Good- sometimes brought lower prices to customers. made owners really rich
Bad- Hurt Competition, owners could do whatever they wanted
What were some effects of industrialization?
-need for imperialism
-shift in population
-people have more free time
-protection of wild areas
-changes in farming
Why did people immigrate to the US (and continue to)?
-political freedom and right to vote
-chance to own land
What was the Great Migration?
African Americans move North for new opportunities and to escape discrimination of the South. Nation becomes more urban. Some race riots broke out in cities because people didn't want African Americans there and were still racist.
How did farming change in the early 1900s?
-more machinery and inventions (barbed wire)
-farm with fewer workers
-increases farming yield
-many moved to cities
Who were the populists and what did they want?
political party organized by farmers to fight for protection against industrialization
Wanted more coinage of silver to give them more money (bimetallism)
What happened to American Indians?
They were pushed off their land when the Europeans arrived to America. They kept being pushed west by settlers eventually forced onto reservations. Often they suffered (and continue to suffer) poverty, lack of education, and social problems like alcoholism. They struggle to keep their traditions and avoid being taken over completely by the US government. Groups like AIM continue to fight for Indian rights.
What organization fought for women's rights starting in the 60s?
National Organization of Women. Their goal is to help women achieve equality in all aspects of their lives including fair pay, maternity leave, divorce rights, and an end to domestic violence. Formed in 1966
What organization fought for Native American rights starting in the 60s?
American Indian Movement, formed in 1968 in response to alleged police brutality toward Native Americans. Goal is to help Native Americans get fair treatment and retain their culture.
What is a credible source? What makes it credible?
a source in which you can trust the author. To determine a credible sources you should do things like check the qualifications and reputation of the author, consider bias and the circumstances a source was written, examine the internal consistency and accuracy, and check for agreement with other credible sources.
What are the prohibition amendments?
18 Banned Alcohol and 21 allowed it again (Prohibition wasn't working and just resulted in bootlegged alcohol, gangs, and corruption)
What are the voting rights amendments?
19th gave women the right to vote (suffrage) and 26th lowered the voting age to 18 because so many men were being drafted to fight in Vietnam at 18 or 19 years old but couldn't vote until they were 21.
What are the Reconstruction Amendments?
13 freed slaves, 14 made them citizens, 15 gave them the right to vote
What exactly is the Cold War?
Ideological conflict between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. between democracy and communism. It's not a real war, but is made up of lots of "proxy" wars where the US or our friends fought indirectly with the USSR and their friends. Examples include Vietnam, Korea, Cuban Missile Crisis, the Berlin Airlift, or the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Why was the US afraid of Communism?
During the cold War, the Soviet Union wanted new countries to set up this type of economy where the government controls all industry and business. Americans worried they would try to take over our way of life by spreading communism and infiltrating our government. We also worried that if communism came here we could no longer hope to get rich.
What is a conscientious objector and can they be drafted?
Someone who refuses to go to war because of their religious beliefs is a conscientious objector (their conscience won't let them fight/kill). They can still be drafted because it is still important to balance our national security and defense while protecting individual rights, therefore conscientious objectors are assigned non-combat roles like medics, drivers, or communications in war.
What are some examples of containment?
The United States' policy of preventing the spread of communism as used in the Marshall Plan (by giving money to countries), the Truman Doctrine, the Vietnam and Korean Wars, the Berlin Airlift, and the Bay of Pigs invasion. Sometimes it is successful, sometimes it is not.
What was the US foreign policy before WWII?
After WWI we were isolationist (neutral - don't take sides), then we leaned toward helping the Allies (Lend-Lease Program lending/renting equipment to the allies), and finally after Pearl Harbor we declared war on Germany and Japan.
Why did the US not support the Treaty of Versailles?
They thought joining the League of Nations (which was part of the Treaty) would draw us into European wars and we just wanted a "return to normalcy" and go back to minding our own business.
How do I refute a thesis?
To refute is to use evidence to show something is wrong. When either supporting or refuting a thesis you should provide evidence to show that your idea is right or their idea is wrong. Don't assume your reader knows what you are talking about. Explain yourself.
What's up with the suburbs? What are they and when did that happen?
Suburbs are outside of the city, but right next to it and not out in the countryside (Westerville, Reynoldsburg, Worthington, Pickerington). During the 1920s when cars were becoming more common people could move further away from their jobs in the cities. You had to have money to move to the suburbs, so wealthier people moved and poor people were left behind in the cities. This became even more widespread after WWII in the 50s as the suburbs grew along with car ownership.
How is the United Nations different from the League of Nations?
The League was created after WWI to prevent future wars. The US did NOT join and the League did not have very much power to enforce it's rules so it couldn't prevent WWII from starting. The UN started after WWII and included more countries (including the US) and had more power to send military, enforce decisions, and had a court as well. It is still around.
Was the Vietnam War successful?
No - the North Vietnamese took over South Vietnam after the US withdrew from the country. We had been losing the war and it became very unpopular in the US so after President Nixon's policy of Vietnamization our troops were removed and South Vietnam was unable to defend itself. The whole country became communist.
How did the standard of living change over time?
standard of living = quality of life.
During industrialization it wasn't good for most people (bad living and working conditions). During the 1920s it got better (flappers, jazz, consumerism), and then the Great Depression it was really poor (no jobs, Hoovervilles, etc.), then in the 50s after WWII it got good again. It continues to improve, but not always for everyone. Poverty still exists.
What group fought for racial equality for African Americans starting back in the 1920s?
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
What were the effects of civil rights movement?
end of legalized segregation other minority groups fought for rights, Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
What caused the Great Depression?
Lack of government oversight of banking and business, buying on margin, overspending on credit, overproduction and underconsumption, bank failures
The Dust Bowl made the depression worse for farmers out west.
What are your Natural Rights?
Rights you are born with that the government cannot take away. Life, Liberty, Property (or in the US the pursuit of happiness)
What is the Panama Canal
Waterway between the US and South America to improve trade and provide for military defense. It speeds up the journey from East to West coast significantly. It took a long time to build though - but Teddy Roosevelt made sure it happened.
How did we treat Japanese Americans during WWII?
Japanese-Americans (Nisei) were put in internment camps during WWII because the US wanted to protect National Security. The case Korematsu vs. US allowed this to happen.
How does immigration change over time?
During the early 1900s, many immigrants came from Eastern and Southern Europe (Italy, Greece, Russia) and were forced to speak English and encourage to assimilate. Chinese immigrants were banned completely (Chinese Exclusion Act).
By the 1960s more people were allowed into the US with the Immigration Act of 1965 that said you couldn't set quotas from certain countries. More immigrants came from Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. Today the majority of immigrants come from Central America.
Are we still isolationist?
NO! Today we are in an globalized economy where we rely on trade with other countries and communication with other parts of the world. The internet, phones, and airplanes have made this more possible.
What is the Roosevelt Corollary?
It is an extension of the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine (in the 1820s) said that European countries should not interfere with North America. The Roosevelt Corollary added on Teddy Roosevelt's guarantee that if they tried we would beat them with a big stick (we would enforce this policy...we call this big stick diplomacy)
What are examples of people migrating in the US?
the Great Migration (African Americans move from South to North in the 1920s)
Okies move out of the Dust Bowl looking for better work during the Depression
workers move from the Rustbelt to the Sunbelt during the 60's, 70s, and 80s.
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