Tech- Ed Unit Test 2018-2019

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Terms in this set (...)

Decoder
Translates encoded message to understandable form
Destination
Where messages go
Encoder
translates the message into a form needed for transmission
Receiver
Accepts encoded information and sends to decoder
Retrieval
obtaining information from a digital system
Source
Starting point of a message
Storage
Place where information is held/saved
Transmitter
sends encoded message to destination
Amplitude
Height of a wave; related to the amount of energy
Analog Signal
continuous waves that keep changing over a period of time
Computer
Electronic device used for storing and processing data
Computer RAM
Random access memory; a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly
Digital Signal
discrete, individual values (not continuous)
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves
Waves of the electromagnetic field that travel through space
Frequency
the number of waves that pass a given amount of time (SI unit= Hertz)
Hardware
Physical parts of computers and devices
Internet
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
Microprocessor
An integrated circuit that contains all the functions of a central processing unit of a computer
Software
Programs and other operating information used by a computer
Sound Waves
Waves generated by a sound source
Circuit Board
A thin rigid board containing an electric circuit
Diode
A device with two terminals, conducts electricity in one direction
Doping
Intentional introduction of impurities to a semiconductor to improve electrical properties
Integrated Circuit
Set of electrical circuits on one flat piece of material; usually made of silicon
Parallel Circuit
Has two or more paths for current to go through; voltage is the same across all areas; current is the sum of all the currents
Semiconductor
A solid material with electrical conductivity between that of an insulator (low) and metal (high); made of silicon; essential parts of circuits
Series Circuit
One path; arranged in a chain; current is the same through each resistor; voltage is the sum of all voltages
Transistor
Semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electrical signals/power; have three terminals for connection
Structure
Has a definite size and a shape which serve a definite purpose or function; To serve its function every part of the structure must interact with forces (loads) (Ex. buildings, bridges, food storage shelter)
Mass Structure
Made by piling up or forming similar materials into a shape or design. (Ex. foundation, bricks, stone walls, dams)
Trusses
A structural system composed of triangular units, which consist of straight beams connected at the joints called nodes. (Ex. roofs, floors, bridges)
Parts of a Truss
Top chord, bottom chord, truss web (Ex. apex, overhang, splice, joints)
Cable Structure
Used to span long distances. Strength comes from tension; used to support bridges, roadways, and building roofs (Ex. Bridges, roadways, building roofs)
Arches
Used to span long distances. Strength comes from compression and must resist the outward thrust by the loads they support. (Ex. Domes, Tunnels)
Beam Bridge
Simplest and earliest bridge design.

Used to span short distances up to 200ft.

Cheapest to build
Truss Bridge
A bridge made of an assembly of triangles.

It is much stronger than a beam bridge so can extend longer distances.
Arch Bridge
Oldest style bridge. Ideal for use in canyons.

The arch supports itself so there is no need for towers or piers.

Spans up to 800 feet
Suspension Bridge
The longest bridge, it spans distances from 2000 to 7000 feet.

It has large iron chains used for cables.

Ideal for covering a busy waterway.
Force
An exertion of pressure either focused toward or pulling away from an object, and is applied either by another object or something such as gravity or magnetism
Loads
Forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in structures
Compression
a force that attempts to crush or shorten a structure. typical structural components in compression are columns and struts.
Shear
a force that acts in opposite directions and can tear a structural component apart
Torsion
a twisting force placed on a structure.
Tension
a force that attempts to stretch and pull a structure apart. typical structural components in tension are cables and tie-rods.
Dead Load
The force of the structure itself

(Example: the weight of a house)

can also be a static load
Live Load
The force of objects (often moving) supported by the structure

(Example: the weight of people dancing inside a house)

can also be a dynamic load
Static Load
The force of a motionless object (Does not change over time)

(Example: the force of a man standing on a rope)

can also be a dead load
Dynamic Load
The force of a moving object

(Example: the force of a man walking across a rope)

can also be a live load
Wind Load
The force on a structure as a result of wind pushing on it

(Example: strong winds making the windows rattle during a storm)
Seismic Load
The force of an earthquake or a tsunami on the ground or a structure

(Example: earthquake rattling a building)
Transportation System
is a facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods using a variety of vehicles and devices.
Car
a road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by an internal combustion engine and able to carry a small number of people.
Boat
a small vessel propelled on water by oars, sails, or an engine.
Train
a series of railroad cars moved as a unit by a locomotive or by integral motors.
Airplane
a powered flying vehicle with fixed wings and a weight greater than that of the air it displaces.
Transportation Subsystem
is a system within a larger system. It interacts with every vehicle for it to function properly. There are six main kinds:

Propulsion, Suspension, Control, Guidance, Structural, & Support
Propulsion
The propulsion system provides the force that moves the vehicle toward the destination. (Ex. Engine, Transmission)
Suspension
The suspension system supports the weight of a vehicle as it moves down a pathway. (Ex. shocks, tires, wings)
Control
Control systems influence the speed and direction of a vehicle's path. (Ex. Steering wheel, Brakes)
Guidance
Guidance systems provide information concerning the control of the vehicle. (Ex. Maps, GPS)
Structural
Structural systems accommodate a vehicle's cargo and form the basic framework of the vehicle. (Ex. Chassis/frame and body)
Support
Support systems are used to maintain vehicles ( Garage, Mechanic, Gas Station)
Vehicle Design
Maintain safe and proper usage of vehicles in today's world
Vehicle Shape
can be changed to maximize cargo or passenger capacity
Terminals
the end of a railroad or other transport route, or a station at such a point
Travel Lanes
occur on highways, roads, and main streets for safe travel
Communication/Controls
used to identify location and movement of vehicles
(ex. street cameras), and monitor equipment to keep the network rolling (ex. GPS)
Universal Signs
symbols, diagrams, and pictures that are used to convey a message that people from all around the world will recognize, regardless of the language they speak
Physical Process
a sustained phenomenon marked by gradual changes through a series of states (Ex. melting, transition to gas, size, shape, color, volume)
Cutting
This process involves the use of physical forces to cut an object. Examples of this type of cutting include sawing, shearing, and drilling.
Forming
Bring together parts or combine to create make or fashion into a certain shape or form
Extruding
a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section
creates very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle
Encounters compressive and shear forces
Sanding
smooth or polish with sandpaper or a mechanical sander Uses friction force
Universal Systems Model
a systems model defined by an input, process, output and feedback.
Engineering Design Process
a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes
Engineering Design Process Steps
1. Identify the need
2. Research the problem
3. Develop possible solutions
4. Select the most promising solution.
5. Construct a prototype
6. Test and evaluate the prototype
7. Communicate the design
8. Redesign
Prototype
a first, typical or preliminary model of something, especially a machine, from which other forms are developed or copied.
Manufacturing
making a product by changing the shape, size or composition of materials
Wood
hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub, used for fuel or timber.
Metal
a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity (e.g., iron, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, and alloys such as brass and steel).
Plastic
a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be molded into shape while soft and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form.
Ceramic
A solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, and brick.
Measuring Tools
a device for measuring a physical quantity. (Ex. ruler, meter stick, tape measure)
Fastener
a device that closes or secures something. (Ex. Nails, Screws, Nuts & Bolts, Staples, Glue, tape)
Hand Tool
a tool held in the hand and operated without electricity or other power. (Ex, pliers, wrench, screwdriver, hammer)
Power Tool
a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools. (Ex. Drill, jigsaw, sander)
Processes
A series of actions that lead to a goal
Casting and Molding
processes that cause molten material to enter a mold where it solidifies before being extracted
Separating
processes that give a material size and shape by removing excess material
Conditioning
processes that change material properties using heat, pressure or chemical action
Assembling
processes that are used to permanently or temporarily fasten or bond pieces together
Finishing
processes that protect or beautify a surface by converting the surface or applying a coating
Flexibility
the quality of bending easily without breaking.
Ductility
when a solid material stretches under tensile stress.

The ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire
Hardness
the quality or condition of being hard.

A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
Thermal Conductivity
measure of its ability to conduct heat
Electrical Conductivity
The ability of an object to carry electric current

How strongly that material opposes the flow of electric current.
Melting Point
the temperature at which a given solid will melt.