translates the message into a form needed for transmission
Accepts encoded information and sends to decoder
obtaining information from a digital system
Starting point of a message
Place where information is held/saved
sends encoded message to destination
Height of a wave; related to the amount of energy
continuous waves that keep changing over a period of time
Electronic device used for storing and processing data
Random access memory; a type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly
discrete, individual values (not continuous)
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves
Waves of the electromagnetic field that travel through space
the number of waves that pass a given amount of time (SI unit= Hertz)
Physical parts of computers and devices
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
An integrated circuit that contains all the functions of a central processing unit of a computer
Programs and other operating information used by a computer
Waves generated by a sound source
A thin rigid board containing an electric circuit
A device with two terminals, conducts electricity in one direction
Intentional introduction of impurities to a semiconductor to improve electrical properties
Set of electrical circuits on one flat piece of material; usually made of silicon
Has two or more paths for current to go through; voltage is the same across all areas; current is the sum of all the currents
A solid material with electrical conductivity between that of an insulator (low) and metal (high); made of silicon; essential parts of circuits
One path; arranged in a chain; current is the same through each resistor; voltage is the sum of all voltages
Semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electrical signals/power; have three terminals for connection
Has a definite size and a shape which serve a definite purpose or function; To serve its function every part of the structure must interact with forces (loads) (Ex. buildings, bridges, food storage shelter)
Made by piling up or forming similar materials into a shape or design. (Ex. foundation, bricks, stone walls, dams)
A structural system composed of triangular units, which consist of straight beams connected at the joints called nodes. (Ex. roofs, floors, bridges)
Parts of a Truss
Top chord, bottom chord, truss web (Ex. apex, overhang, splice, joints)
Used to span long distances. Strength comes from tension; used to support bridges, roadways, and building roofs (Ex. Bridges, roadways, building roofs)
Used to span long distances. Strength comes from compression and must resist the outward thrust by the loads they support. (Ex. Domes, Tunnels)
Simplest and earliest bridge design.
Used to span short distances up to 200ft.
Cheapest to build
A bridge made of an assembly of triangles.
It is much stronger than a beam bridge so can extend longer distances.
Oldest style bridge. Ideal for use in canyons.
The arch supports itself so there is no need for towers or piers.
Spans up to 800 feet
The longest bridge, it spans distances from 2000 to 7000 feet.
It has large iron chains used for cables.
Ideal for covering a busy waterway.
An exertion of pressure either focused toward or pulling away from an object, and is applied either by another object or something such as gravity or magnetism
Forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components. Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in structures
a force that attempts to crush or shorten a structure. typical structural components in compression are columns and struts.
a force that acts in opposite directions and can tear a structural component apart
a twisting force placed on a structure.
a force that attempts to stretch and pull a structure apart. typical structural components in tension are cables and tie-rods.
The force of the structure itself
(Example: the weight of a house)
can also be a static load
The force of objects (often moving) supported by the structure
(Example: the weight of people dancing inside a house)
can also be a dynamic load
The force of a motionless object (Does not change over time)
(Example: the force of a man standing on a rope)
can also be a dead load
The force of a moving object
(Example: the force of a man walking across a rope)
can also be a live load
The force on a structure as a result of wind pushing on it
(Example: strong winds making the windows rattle during a storm)
The force of an earthquake or a tsunami on the ground or a structure
(Example: earthquake rattling a building)
is a facility consisting of the means and equipment necessary for the movement of passengers or goods using a variety of vehicles and devices.
a road vehicle, typically with four wheels, powered by an internal combustion engine and able to carry a small number of people.
a small vessel propelled on water by oars, sails, or an engine.
a series of railroad cars moved as a unit by a locomotive or by integral motors.
a powered flying vehicle with fixed wings and a weight greater than that of the air it displaces.
is a system within a larger system. It interacts with every vehicle for it to function properly. There are six main kinds:
Propulsion, Suspension, Control, Guidance, Structural, & Support
The propulsion system provides the force that moves the vehicle toward the destination. (Ex. Engine, Transmission)
The suspension system supports the weight of a vehicle as it moves down a pathway. (Ex. shocks, tires, wings)
Control systems influence the speed and direction of a vehicle's path. (Ex. Steering wheel, Brakes)
Guidance systems provide information concerning the control of the vehicle. (Ex. Maps, GPS)
Structural systems accommodate a vehicle's cargo and form the basic framework of the vehicle. (Ex. Chassis/frame and body)
Support systems are used to maintain vehicles ( Garage, Mechanic, Gas Station)
Maintain safe and proper usage of vehicles in today's world
can be changed to maximize cargo or passenger capacity
the end of a railroad or other transport route, or a station at such a point
occur on highways, roads, and main streets for safe travel
used to identify location and movement of vehicles (ex. street cameras), and monitor equipment to keep the network rolling (ex. GPS)
symbols, diagrams, and pictures that are used to convey a message that people from all around the world will recognize, regardless of the language they speak
a sustained phenomenon marked by gradual changes through a series of states (Ex. melting, transition to gas, size, shape, color, volume)
This process involves the use of physical forces to cut an object. Examples of this type of cutting include sawing, shearing, and drilling.
Bring together parts or combine to create make or fashion into a certain shape or form
a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section creates very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle Encounters compressive and shear forces
smooth or polish with sandpaper or a mechanical sander Uses friction force
Universal Systems Model
a systems model defined by an input, process, output and feedback.
Engineering Design Process
a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes
Engineering Design Process Steps
1. Identify the need 2. Research the problem 3. Develop possible solutions 4. Select the most promising solution. 5. Construct a prototype 6. Test and evaluate the prototype 7. Communicate the design 8. Redesign
a first, typical or preliminary model of something, especially a machine, from which other forms are developed or copied.
making a product by changing the shape, size or composition of materials
hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub, used for fuel or timber.
a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity (e.g., iron, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, and alloys such as brass and steel).
a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be molded into shape while soft and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form.
A solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, and brick.
a device for measuring a physical quantity. (Ex. ruler, meter stick, tape measure)
a device that closes or secures something. (Ex. Nails, Screws, Nuts & Bolts, Staples, Glue, tape)
a tool held in the hand and operated without electricity or other power. (Ex, pliers, wrench, screwdriver, hammer)
a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools. (Ex. Drill, jigsaw, sander)
A series of actions that lead to a goal
Casting and Molding
processes that cause molten material to enter a mold where it solidifies before being extracted
processes that give a material size and shape by removing excess material
processes that change material properties using heat, pressure or chemical action
processes that are used to permanently or temporarily fasten or bond pieces together
processes that protect or beautify a surface by converting the surface or applying a coating
the quality of bending easily without breaking.
when a solid material stretches under tensile stress.
The ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire
the quality or condition of being hard.
A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
measure of its ability to conduct heat
The ability of an object to carry electric current
How strongly that material opposes the flow of electric current.