amount of molecular motion in an object
amount of distance something is or travels
amount of space an object takes up
amount of matter in an object
amount of pull on an object due to gravity
amount of push or pull on an object
liter, meter, gram
descriptions based on the 5 senses
descriptions based on measurements
explanation of events based on observations
anything used as a scale for measurement
to mark and number according to a standard
compare an object to a standard
simple data table
created when there is only one trial per level of IV in an experiment
complex data table
created when there are multiple trials per level of IV in an experiment
levels of IV that are categories
measurements that are numeric
created when continuous data is collected
created when discrete data is collected
something that changes in an experiment
factor changed on purpose by the experimenter
data the experimenter will measure and record
factor that does not change in an experiment
prediction of how the IV affects the DV
tells how the variable is being measured
test of the relationship between the IV and DV
measurements taken during an experiment
repetitions of an experiment to increase accuracy
procedure for testing hypotheses
another name for the independent variable
another name for the dependent variable
Create am experiment with the steps in the procedure
Perform the experiment
Collect data and analyze results
the basic unit of structure and function in an organism.
organisms composed of many cells that are specialized to do certain tasks.
a change in an organism's surroundings
an action or change in behavior as a result of a stimulus.
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism.
the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources.
organisms that make their own food.
organisms that cannot make their own food.
maintenance of stable internal conditions
the process of grouping things based on their similarities.
the scientific study of how living things are classified.
"1st name"; a grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms.
group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
organisms whose cells lack a nucleus.
a dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids (the chemical instructions that direct a cell's activities).
organisms with cells that contain nuclei.
instrument that makes small objects look larger.
1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced from other cells.
ability to make things look larger than they appear.
sharpness of an image.
a beam of electrons used to magnify an image.
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
the outside boundary that separates the cell from its environment; controls what comes in and out
the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
rod-shaped organelles known as the "powerhouse" of the cell.
Passageways that carry proteins around cell
Small, grain-like bodies
Some on ER and some float in cytoplasm
Receive proteins, package and distribute them to cell
In plant cells only
Capture energy from sunlight to produce food
Large, water filled sacs used for storage
Plants have one big vacuole; some animals have them
Small, round structures
Cell's "cleanup crew"
Break down various substances
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
two or more elements chemically combined
an energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples of sugars and starches.
energy-rich organic compounds such as fats, oils, and waxes.
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; found in meat, eggs, fish, nuts, and beans.
smallest molecule that makes up proteins; 20 different kinds form thousands of different proteins.
type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Contain instructions that cells need to carry out all functions of life.
hereditary genetic information found in chromatin in the nucleus.
plays an important role in production of proteins.
some substances can pass through the membrane while others cannot.
process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
requires NO cellular energy
requires cellular energy
cells "pick up" molecules outside the cell and carry them in, using energy.
transport by engulfing
cell membrane surrounds a particle and brings it into the cell
the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
an organism that makes its own food
an organism that cannot make its own food
absorb light, makes leaves green
main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts
carbon dioxide enters the plant through these small openings on the undersides of leaves
the process in which plants and some organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars
the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose
an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen
when yeasts break down sugars for energy; alcohol is a product
lactic acid fermentation
when muscles use up oxygen faster than it can be replaced; lactic acid is the product
the sequence of growth and division for cells; in 3 stages: interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
the stage for cell growth, replication of DNA, and preparation to divide into 2 cells
the stage for division of the nucleus; one copy of DNA is distributed into each of the 2 daughter cells.
the division of the cytoplasm completes the process of cell division
Supplies energy to a virus or another organism
Small resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell
Type of virus that may stay inactive for a long period of time
Process of heating food to kill harmful bacteria
Long structure that aids in movement
Type of virus that multiplies as soon as it enters the cell
Part of virus containing its genetic information
reproduction that requires only one parent cell
Transfer of genetic information via a threadlike bridge
Tiny, nonliving particle that enters cell to reproduce
Organism that does not have a nucleus
Protective part of a virus
Lives on or in another organism, causing it harm
Type of division when one cell divides into 2 identical cells
Reproduction that requires two parent cells
Made from a weakened or altered virus to elicit an immune response
One bacterium transfers some genetic to another through a thread-like bridge; then, cells split
Small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell. contains cell's genetic material and some of its cytoplasm
Food heated to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
Organisms that break down large chemicals in dead organisms into small chemicals. "nature's recyclers."
Eukaryotes that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi. ("odds and ends.")
Animal-like protists; unicellular
Temporary bulges of the cell; form when cytoplasm flows toward one location and the rest of the organism follows-- allows sarcodines to move ("false foot")
Structure that collects extra water and expels it from the cell
Hairlike projections from fells that move with a wavelike motion; used to move and obtain food
A close relationship between organisms in which at least one of the species benefits
A close relationship between organisms in which both species benefit
Plantlike protist; autotrophic
Tiny cell that is able to grown into a new organism
Eukaryotes that have cell walls, are heterotrophs that feed by absorbing their food, and that use spores to reproduce
Branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi
Reproductive structures in which fungi produce spores
A form of asexual reproduction in which no spores are produced; small cell grows from body of parent cell, then breaks away and lives on its own; (unicellular yeast cells)
Consists of a fungus and either algae or autotrophic bacteria that live together in a mutualistic relationship
animal-like protist that moves by way of pseudopod
animal-like protist that moves by way of cilia
unicellular plant-like protist with a glasslike cell wall
unicellular plant-like protist that glows in the dark
unicellular plant-like protist that moves by way of flagella
multicellular plant-like protist used to make ice cream and conditioner
multicellular plant-like protist that includes common seaweed and kelp (contain bladders so they can stand upright)
multicellular plant-like protists that contain chlorophyll like common plants
waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants; helps reduce water loss
system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move
fertilized egg cell
lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials
have a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials; can grow tall b/c of increased strength, stability, and support
(stage in which) plant produces spores
(stage in which) plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells
thin, root-like structures which anchor moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil
leaves of a fern; upper surface coated with cuticle that helps plant retain water
vascular tissue through which food moves
vascular tissue through which water and minerals move
tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells
a structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering (protect it from drying out)
the young plant that develops from the zygote
seed leaves of the embryo
occurs when the embryo begins to grow and pushes out of the seed .
protects the root from injury from rocks as the root grows through the soil
layer of cells which divide to produce new phloem and xylem
the process by which water evaporates from a plant's leaves
a seed plant that produces naked seeds
reproductive structure of most gymnosperms; covered with scales
a structure that contains an egg cell
the transfer of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure
share 2 important traits:
1) produce flowers
2) produce seeds that are enclosed in fruits
the reproductive structure of an angiosperm
leaf-like structures that protect the developing flower (bud); often green in color
generally most colorful part of flower; attracts pollinators with color and scent
a flower's male reproductive parts
a flower's female reproductive parts; found in the center of most flowers
hollow structure in the pistil which protects seeds as they develop
a ripened ovary and other structures that enclose one or more seeds
angiosperms that only have one seed leaf
produce seeds with two seed leaves
examples: food plans like beans and apples
a plant's growth response toward or away from a stimulus
a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops
a plant hormone that speeds up the rate at which a plant's cells grown and controls a plant's response to light
a plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day
these plants flower when nights are LONGER than a critical length
these plants flower when nights are SHORTER than a critical length
critical night length
the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a given plant will flower
plants whose flowering cycle is not sensitive to periods of light and dark
a period when an organism's growth or activity stops; helps plants survive freezing temperatures and the lack of liquid water
flower plants that complete a life cycle within one growing season; most have herbaceous stems
angiosperms that complete their life cycle in two years
most flower ever year; most have woody stems that live through the winter
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