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the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism.
group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.
a dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids (the chemical instructions that direct a cell's activities).
1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells are produced from other cells.
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
the outside boundary that separates the cell from its environment; controls what comes in and out
Large, water filled sacs used for storage
Plants have one big vacuole; some animals have them
an energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples of sugars and starches.
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur; found in meat, eggs, fish, nuts, and beans.
smallest molecule that makes up proteins; 20 different kinds form thousands of different proteins.
very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Contain instructions that cells need to carry out all functions of life.
process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
the process in which plants and some organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars
lactic acid fermentation
when muscles use up oxygen faster than it can be replaced; lactic acid is the product
the sequence of growth and division for cells; in 3 stages: interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
the stage for division of the nucleus; one copy of DNA is distributed into each of the 2 daughter cells.
One bacterium transfers some genetic to another through a thread-like bridge; then, cells split
Small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms inside a bacterial cell. contains cell's genetic material and some of its cytoplasm
Food heated to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
Organisms that break down large chemicals in dead organisms into small chemicals. "nature's recyclers."
Temporary bulges of the cell; form when cytoplasm flows toward one location and the rest of the organism follows-- allows sarcodines to move ("false foot")
Hairlike projections from fells that move with a wavelike motion; used to move and obtain food
Eukaryotes that have cell walls, are heterotrophs that feed by absorbing their food, and that use spores to reproduce
A form of asexual reproduction in which no spores are produced; small cell grows from body of parent cell, then breaks away and lives on its own; (unicellular yeast cells)
Consists of a fungus and either algae or autotrophic bacteria that live together in a mutualistic relationship
multicellular plant-like protist that includes common seaweed and kelp (contain bladders so they can stand upright)
system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move
have a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials; can grow tall b/c of increased strength, stability, and support
a structure that contains a young plant inside a protective covering (protect it from drying out)
the transfer of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure
share 2 important traits:
1) produce flowers
2) produce seeds that are enclosed in fruits
a plant hormone that speeds up the rate at which a plant's cells grown and controls a plant's response to light
critical night length
the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a given plant will flower
a period when an organism's growth or activity stops; helps plants survive freezing temperatures and the lack of liquid water
flower plants that complete a life cycle within one growing season; most have herbaceous stems
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