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Terms in this set (38)
bio-mechanical insult to nerve tissue is proposed to cause neural dysfunction in the following three forms
-decreased axoplasmic tranport
acute= hypertonicity (spasm)
acute= sympathetic vasomotor
chronic= sympathetic a tonia
described as hypomobility, decreases joint play or segmental hypermobility due to compression
***cornerstone model of chiropractic
may include spasm or hypertonicity of muscles as a result of compensation, facilitation, Hilton's Law, or any combination
relates to inflammation
5 signs of inflammation
loss of function- functio leasa
hormonal or chemical effects or imbalances related to the pre-inflammatory stress syndrome and production of histomines, prostiglandins and bradykinins
*end result of the VSC is Dis-Ease
neurological reflex model
a basic chiropracti hypothesis that abnormal spinal biomechanics and muscle dysfunction have effects, via the nervous systemm throughout the body and that the chiropractic adjustment is applied not only to restore ROM and alignment, but also to cause or relieve refle effects in the nervous system.
The knee-jerk reflex. A muscle spasm ass. w joint dysfunction
Kidney insufficiency leading to HTN. Asthma causing bronchioconstriction.
Spinal adjusting may be effective for relieving pain and distress of primary dysmenorrhea
respiratory or digestive dysfunction such as asthma or colic may cause reflex disturbances in the spine leading to muscle tension and jint subluxation.
"GATE" Control Theory of Pain
States that wi the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II of the grey matter), several factors are able to block or facilitate the transmission of pain-producing impulses in the thalamus.
- Signals traveling on the fast type A alpha (1A) afferent fibers greatly depress pain transmission whick travel on type C (IV) fibers.
- Pain fibers terminate at the Dorssal Horn of the spinal cord in the substantia gelatinosa.
Vascular Insufficiency Models
cervical intervertebral subluxations may cause deflection or compression of the vertebral arteries, thereby altering cerebral circulation
***5D's and 3N's
-ataxia of gait
**OVER THE POST. ARCH OF C1
**ROTATION AND EXTENSION
"Bone out of place"
"garden hose theory"
-Pain in dermatomal patterns, dec. DTR, paresthesia, and muscle atrophy
-the spinal nerve rootlets lack the epineural covering of the NR's as they exit the IVF and more susceptible to pressure, inflammation, and ischemia.
Axonal Aberration-Trophic models
Axoplasmic transport is the mechanism by which the nerve is provided nutrition through the flow of proteins and other materials by way of sliding filaments (similar to actin and myosin cross bridges). There are fast, slow and bulk mechanisms that transmit proteins, glycoproteins and neurotransmitters in both directions along the nerve fiber. Axonal aberration occurs secondary to neural compression.
Cord compression theory
Compressive myelopathy or cord compression refers to destruction of spinal cord tissue caused by pressure from neoplasms, hematomas, congenital defects, and extreme trauma.
Fixation theory, segmental facilitation, segmental hypothesis, gamma motor gain, proprioceptive insult, sympatheticotonia
Segmental facilitation - Lowered threshold for firing in a spinal cord segment as a result of afferent bombardment associated with spinal lesions
Facilitation - continuous firing of nociception makes it easier to get to the brain, constant bombardment of nociception lowers the threshold for firing in this segment = PROPRIOCEPTIVE INSULT
-Korr's model explains that a vertebrae is "stuck" in a normal or abnormal position but always wi a NORMAL range of motion due to a muscle spasm producing hypomobiity and nociception
Neuroimmunomodulation - neural dysfunction is stressful to the viscera and other body structures. This 'lowered tissue resistance' can modify the immune responses and alter the trophic function of the involved nerves (decreased antibody production)
*** ANYTHING TO DO WITH Ig----
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Seyle's concept that the body responds to stress with alarm, resistance and exhaustion
negative stress= distress
positive stress= eustress
Type I receptors
outer layer of joint capsule
- stimulated by active or passive joint motions
Type II mechanoreceptors
deeper layers of the joint capsule
-stimulated with tension
Type III mechanoreceptors
intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments
-stimulated by flexion
Carry conscious proprioception
-Ruffini= joint position sense
carry unconscious proprioception
MSC-muscle Spindal cell= type 1a- stretch
GTO- Golgi tendon organ= type 1b fibers- tension
-Developer of Chiropractic
-HIO (only C1)
Pelvic distortion model
-subluxations are from abnormal biomechanics
Considers the process of mechanical joint dysfunction through three phases of joint fixation: muscular, ligamentous, articular.
Fixation theory of joint hypomobility
Father of Homeopathy
Joint hypermobility: described SI movement
3 phase model of Instability
(Joint hypomobility, instability, degeneration)
Segmental facilitation theory
-Muscle is central to the theory
33 Principles of Chiropractic
-Safety pin cycle
Type II nerve injury
-Recovery may require months
-EX: crush injury or displaced bone fragments
Type I nerve injury
-Recovery occurs wi weeks to months
- Reversible conduction block charaterized by local ischemia and selective dymyelination of the axon sheath.
Type III nerve injury
-complete nerve division and disruption of the endoneurium
- No recovery
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