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US History UNIT B: Chapters 26-29 [Ramsey BHS Spring 2019]
Terms in this set (48)
Nickname for the 1920s because of the booming economy and fast pace of life during that era
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
American Individualism (1922)
A book written by HERBERT HOOVER, SAID THAT ALL REFORM AND HUMAN ADVANCE MUST COME THROUGH GOVERNMENT, AND THAT
PROGRESS MUST COME FROM THE STEADY LIFT OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THAT THE MEASURE OF NATIONAL IDEALISM AND PROGRESS IS THE QUALITY OF IDEALISM IN THE
This president promised a "return to normalcy" when he was elected. His administration was full of scandal and corruption, including the Teapot Dome scandal.
Silent Cal -- elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)
He became president after Harding died in office. He fired those involved in the scandals; increased government support of business and encouraged a continuation and expansion of Harding's policies.
the president who was in office when the depression started. He believed that if the government got involved it would only make the Great Depression worse.
free enterprise system
An economic system in which individuals depend on supply and demand and the profit margin to determine what to produce, how to produce, how much to produce, and for whom to produce. The quest for improvement financially and materially motivates consumers and producers.
credit and installment plan
Many Americans bought things on credit, where they would get the item now and pay it later. An installment plan was the money paid, usually in monthly payments.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
A severe downturn in stock prices that occurred in October of 1929 in the United States, and which marked the end of the "Roaring Twenties." Despite a few attempts at recovery, the stock market continued to languish, eventually falling almost 90% from its peak in 1929. It took over 25 years for the stock market to get back to the highs of the 1929 market, as the U.S. economy suffered through the Great Depression. Major new legislative and regulatory changes (New Deal) were enacted in an effort to prevent the same situation from happening again.
Jazz Age/Roaring 20's
These were nicknames for the 1920's that reflected prosperity and change - and the music genre jazz was popular
List them -- like radio, movies...
self-sufficient more so, express desire for independence thru rebellion, cross gender friendships, aware of sexual orientation
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
A gifted African-American poet, novelist, and playwright, who became one of the foremost interpreters of racial relationships in the United States and the name most often associated with the Harlem Renaissance. Influenced by the Bible, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Walt Whitman, Hughes depicted realistically the ordinary lives of black people.
The Dunbar Hotel was once the epicenter of African-American culture and society in Los Angeles. Today, it is a nice brick building that houses seniors; it looks like a million other well made, slightly dingy structures from the 1920s. It blends into the urban landscape. Blink and you'll miss it. But there are plenty of hints of past glory. A peek through the gates reveals an elegant Spanish style courtyard. At the front entrance, inlaid in stone is "Hotel Somerville," the structure's original name. There is a neon sign reading "Hotel Dunbar" and two historical markers covered by green leaves and branches. Across the street is the "Central Avenue Jazz Park."
Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the Cotton Club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
during WWI, wartime demand for labor attracted African Americans to cities in the North and West
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment (1920)
Ratified on August 18, 1920 (drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton), prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. The Constitution allows the states to determine the qualifications for voting, and until the 1910's most states disenfranchised women. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the U.S.
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress -- the flapper skirts and hair bobs -- and free behavior
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchell Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco and Vanzetti
In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly
National Origins Act of 1924
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union)
It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
The Jazz Singer, 1927
The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of a fictional jazz singer, portrayed by actor Al Jolson. It was the first movie that included dialogue and music on the filmstrip itself. Before The Jazz Singer, there were silent films that were often accompanied by music (usually a piano player or an orchestra).
An illegal bar where drinks were sold, during the time of prohibition. It was called a Speakeasy because people literally had to speak easy so they were not caught drinking alcohol by the police.
the act of making of transporting alcoholic liquor for sale illegally
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
Tradition versus "Modernity
First woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
1912, American Indian, wins both decathlon and pentathlon at Olympics in Sweden; later medals and honors taken away when its discovered he had played semi-pro baseball as a summer job in college
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).
American artist that painted flowers and landscapes during the great depression often seen as sexual in nature
the practice of shielding one or more industries within a country's economy from foreign competition through the use of tariffs or quotas
Black Sox Scandal
Nickname of professional sport scandal that occurred in 1919. Eight baseball players from the city of the Chicago took bribes from gamblers to fix the World Series. The scandal reduced the popularity of the game and resulted in a new policy for Major League baseball players who bet on baseball. The new rule stated any player found betting on baseball would receive a lifetime ban from the game (example: Pete Rose).
Chicago Race Riots
A black man was swimming and a group of white men hit him with a rock and he drowned; this caused a race riot; 40 people died, hundreds injured and thousands left homeless because of arsonists. Was the worst Riot in The Red Summer.
First commercial radio station
Causes of the Stock Market Crash
1. Expanding middle class sought to invest, even if on margin. Stock prices were propped up by risky loans. 2. The Farm Problem, farmers had been struggling for the decade through natural disasters and falling prices. 3. Money Supply, Federal Reserve had tightened the supply of money, which in the 1920s had outpaced economic expansion.
Isolationism and the Neutrality Acts of 1935
*America became isolationist after World War I, mainly because its citizens had felt the harsh effects of the conflict
*Isolationist acts include the rejection of the Treaty of Versailles and the imposition of higher tariffs
*Neutrality Acts: In the event of war, American exports of military components were to be stalled for six months, which would stop ships that were leaving the US from transporting arms to combatants
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