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Politics of the United States
16.1 - Civil Rights Movements (Jim Crow, School Desegregation)
Terms in this set (15)
The nickname for a system of laws that enforced segregation. For example, African Americans had separate schools, rode in the backs of busses, could not drink from White drinking fountains, and could not eat in restaurants or stay in hotels, etc.
First African American baseball player to play for a major league team.
Executive Order 9981
Executive order issued by President Truman in 1948 ending racial segregation in the military.
African American teenager from Chicago who was murdered by Whites in 1955 while visiting his family in Mississippi. His murder and open casket funeral brought national attention to the issue of Jim Crow segregation and racism in the South.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court case in which the court declared that racially segregated schools and other public facilities were constitutional establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine. It was overturned in the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Organization dedicated to promoting African American rights through the justice system. It was established in 1909 as part of the Niagara Movement.
NAACP lawyer who argued the Brown v. Board of Education case and was later appointed to be the first African American justice on the Supreme Court.
Separate but Equal
Legal doctrine established by the Supreme Court in the Plessy v. Ferguson case that segregated schools and other public institutions were legal so long as they were equal.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 Supreme Court decision that ended segregated schools by overturning the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in the 1950s and 1960s who pushed the Court to rule favorably on numerous cases related to civil rights.
Little Rock Nine
Group of African American students who integrated the main high school in Arkansas under the protection of the National Guard.
African American girl who was the first to integrate Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans. She became the subject of Norman Rockwell's painting "The Problem We All Life With."
First African American student at the University of Mississippi.
Battle of Oxford
Rioting by White citizens and the efforts by US Marshals and army troops to keep the peace at the University of Mississippi when James Meredith became the first African American student to enroll there.
Governor of Alabama during the 1960s who was a champion of segregation. His most famous line was "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever."
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