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Chapter 22 Quiz
Terms in this set (33)
What distinguished the end of Europe's African and Asian colonial empires in the second half of the twentieth century from other cases of imperial disintegration?
The mobilization of the masses around a nationalist ideology
In contrast to the first decolonization of the Americas in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the struggles for independence in Africa and Asia in the second half of the twentieth century...
affirmed the vitality of precolonial cultures
Which of the following represented a fundamental contradiction that undermined the colonial enterprise in the second half of the twentieth century?
The ideal of national self-determination was at odds with the denial of independence to colonies
Which of the following changes in the international arena in the second half of the twentieth century contributed to the end of European colonial rule?
The United Nations provided an international platform from which to conduct anticolonial agitation
Which of the following was a social or economic circumstance within the European colonies that contributed to anticolonial movements?
The growing number of Western-educated colonial elites who no longer viewed colonial rule as a vehicle for their people's progress
Which of the following was an initial goal of the Indian National Congress (INC)?
Gaining positions of influence in British India to protect Indian interests
In contrast to Indians' struggle for independence in the twentieth century, black South African's struggle for control of their country was...
waged against an internal community of permanent white settlers who controlled the country
How did the system of apartheid in South Africa come to an end?
Through negotiations between the white South African government and black South African nationalist leaders
In Africa in the early 1980s, what happened to the political parties that had led the movements for independence from colonial rule?
Most were soon swept away by military coups
In Africa, which of the following contributed to the loss of popular support for the democratic institutions established in the wake of independence from colonial rule?
Poor economic performance
What accounts for the resurgence of democracy in many developing countries in the decades since the 1980s?
The failure of authoritarian governments to address economic and social problems
Which of the following characterizes the economic strategy of most countries in the developing world since the late twentieth century?
Dependence on the market to generate economic growth
Which group of developing countries has been the most successful in stimulating economic growth and industrialization in the late twentieth century?
East Asian countries
The reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk in Turkey in the early twentieth century...
removed Islam from public life
Which of the following resulted from the so-called White Revolution of Shah Mohammad Rem Pahlavi in Iran?
Discontent and resentment that paved the way for an Islamic revolution
Which of the following reflects a task of newly independent nation-states in the aftermath of decolonization in Africa and Asia in the second half of the twentieth century?
The building of modern economies, stable politics, and coherent nations
Which of the following countries became a new nation-state in the late 1940s?
Which of the following represented a form of imperialism without territorial possessions that came under attack in the twentieth century?
U.S. influence in Latin America
Which of the following was a common characteristic of the leaders of independence movements in European colonies in Asia and Africa in the second half of the twentieth century?
They were educated
What did all nationalist movements in Asia and Africa in the second half of the twentieth century share in common?
The goal of political independence
Which of the following served as a unifying factor in South Asia before British colonial rule?
In contrast to previous foreign rulers in India, the British were the only ones to...
never assimilate into Indian society
Which of the following characterized Mohandas Gandhi's agenda in India's struggle for independence?
A nostalgic return to pre-industrial society composed of self-sufficient villages
Which of the following groups favored a broad alliance of everyone opposed to apartheid regardless of race?
The African National Congress
Which of the following describes a feature of the strategy of the African National Congress in their resistance to the South African government from 1950 to 1994?
Non-violent civil disobedience against apartheid
Which government launched a revolutionary but short-lived program to achieve a peaceful transition to socialism in the early 1970s?
Chile under Salvador Allende
In the Global South, which of the following was the standard by which people measured and granted legitimacy to their governments?
Which of the following describes how the Ayatollah. Khomeini viewed the revolution he had launched in Iran?
As a model for other Islamic countries to follow
Which of the following exercised the dominant power in the new government established in the wake of the Iranian revolution?
Refer to Map 22.2 in the textbook. In the partition of British India in 1947, why was Pakistan made up of two regions flanking India?
The two regions were populated mostly by Muslims
Which of the following reflects Mustafa Kemal Atatark's view of the caliphate?
"...it would be in contradiction to the independence of the state, to the sovereignty of the people."
Which of the following reflects the Ayatollah Khomeini's view of the relationship between religion and politics?
"Islamic government is the government of divine right, and its laws cannot be changed, modified, or contested."
Who would most disagree with the Ayatollah Khomeini's opinion that "the ludicrous use of the Western hat stands in the way of our independence and is contrary to the will of Allah"?
Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk
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