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16.2 - Civil Rights Movements (MLK, Protests)
Terms in this set (29)
African American activist in Montgomery, Alabama who was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. The event initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leader of the African American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. He was a minister from Montgomery, Alabama and was assassinated in 1968. He is most famously remembered for his "I Have a Dream" Speech.
The use of peaceful means, not force, to bring about political or social change.
The breaking of laws to demonstrate that they are unjust.
Coretta Scott King
Civil rights activist and wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Co-founder of the SCLC with Martin Luther King, Jr.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955 civil rights protest let initiated by the arrest of Rosa Parks in which African Americans refused to ride city busses until they were desegregated. It was successful and helped propel Dr. King to prominence as the leader of the Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Movement
Overall term for the many protests throughout the 1950s and 1960s in which African Americans sought to advance their civil rights through protests, boycotts, sit-ins, marches, etc. Martin Luther King, Jr. was its generally accepted, although unofficial, leader.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Organization formed by Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy to organize civil rights demonstrations.
A form of protest used to desegregate lunch counters in the South in the late-1950s. African American students would enter a restaurant and sit peacefully until they were served.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Civil rights organization formed by African American students in 1960s. They organized sit-ins and joined in other protests.
1961 civil rights demonstration against segregated waiting rooms at bus terminals. The protesters were attacked when they arrived in the Deep South.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Civil rights organization that participated in the Freedom Rides and other protests.
Chairman of the SNCC. He helped organize the March on Washington, participated in the Bloody Sunday march and represented Georgia in the House of Representatives for more than 30 years.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Racist organization based in the South that terrorized African Americans after the Civil War and helped establish the system of Jim Crow. They were also anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic and anti-Semitic. The organization experienced a revival in the 1920s and again during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.
Effort by SNCC and SCLC to desegregate the city of Albany, Georgia in 1961. They organized nonviolent protests and were arrested in large numbers, but ultimately failed to desegregate the city.
Effort by SCLC to desegregate the city of Birmingham, Alabama in 1963. They were met with fierce and violent resistance from the city's White leadership. Images of police dogs and fire hoses attacking protesters captured national attention and helped the effort succeed.
White police chief in Birmingham, Alabama who used fire hoses and police dogs to attack civil rights protesters.
A letter that is released to the public for anyone to read.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Famous letter written by Martin Luther King, Jr. during the Birmingham protests in which Dr. King responds to critics who accused him of being an outside agitator and believed he was trying to make too much change, too quickly.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
Bombing of a Birmingham church by the KKK in which four African American girls were killed.
African American civil rights lawyer who helped James Meredith enroll at the University of Mississippi and was later assassinated while organizing protests in the city of Jackson.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Major civil rights rally in Washington, DC in 1963 to promote the passage of the Civil Rights Act. Dr. King gave his "I Have a Dream" speech at the event.
I Have a Dream Speech
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s most famous speech given at the March on Washington in 1963 in which he laid out the moral aspirations of the Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Law passed in 1964 that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace, and by facilities that serve the public.
Effort to register African Americans in Mississippi to vote during 1964. It was marked by violent resistance from the KKK.
Murder of Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner
Famous killing of civil rights workers during Freedom Summer in 1964. President Johnson ordered the FBI to investigate and the event resulted in national awareness of the lawlessness of the KKK and injustice of the Jim Crow South's legal system.
Attack in 1965 on civil rights marchers by White police officers as they tried to march across the Edmund Pettus Bridge between Selma and Montgomery, Alabama. They protesters were marching to demand voting rights and the attack pushed congress to pass the Voting Rights Act.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Law passed in 1965 that eliminated restrictions on voting such as literacy tests and pole taxes.
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