55 terms

PSY 1010 Exam #3: Chapter 5 Study Guide

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Learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience
behaviorism
theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors; doesn't take into account mental thought processes
associative learning
learning when one makes a connection or an association between two events
classical conditioning
association between two stimuli. We learn to participate events
operant conditioning
association between behavior and consequence, such as a reward
Observational learning
learning through observing and imitating another's behavior
Ivan Pavlov's work with dogs
dogs salivate at the sight or smell of food. Ivan taught the dog that they would get food when a bell was wrung. Hence, the dog began to salivate whenever a bell was wrung
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a stimulus that provides a response without prior learning.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previously unconditioned stimulus that provides a conditioned response when paired with an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response (UR)
an unlearned reaction that is an automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
a learned response to conditioned stimulus that occurs after a conditioned stimulus / unconditioned stimulus pairing
aquisition
learning of connection between pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
generalization (classical conditioning)
tendency of new but similar stimuli to elicit a similar response as to that of conditioned stimuli
discrimination (classical conditioning)
the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others
fear (classical conditioning)
behavior learned via classical conditioning where and unconditioned stimulus is conditioned to become something that causes fear
John Watson's Little Albert Experiment
Watson caused Albert to fear rats and similar animals by associating them with a loud noise. Considered unethical today
counterconditioning
procedure to change relationship between a conditioned stimuli and a conditioned response
aversive conditioning
a form of treatment that involves repeated pairings of stimulus with unpleasant stimulus
Robert Alder's discovery of immunosuppresion
Alder discovered that immunosuppresion can ve caused by a placebo through classical conditioning
habituation
decreased responsiveness to stimulus after repeated presentations
E. L. Thorndike's Law of Effect
behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, and behaviors with negative effects are weakened
B. F. Skinner
most prominent theorist of operant conditioning. He trained pigeons to pilot missiles
shaping
rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior
positive reinforcement
the presentation of stimulus after a given behavior in order to increase frequency of behavior
negative reinforcement
removal of stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase frequency of behavior
avoidance learning
learning to avoid a negative stimulus by making a particular response
learned helplessness
through experience with an unavoidable aversive stimuli, one learns it has no control over the negative outcomes
primary reinforcer
an innately satisfying reinforcer. Doesn't require learning to be pleasurable
example of primary reinforcer
food, water, sex
secondary reinforcer
a reinforcer that becomes pleasurable through classical conditioning
example of secondary reinforcer
getting an A on a test, receiving a paycheck for a job
generalization (operant conditioning)
performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation
discrimination (operant conditioning)
responding appropriately to stimuli that signals whether a behavior will be reinforced or not
Extinction (operant conditioning)
decreases in frequency of behavior when behavior is no longer reinforced
interval schedule
based on the amount of time that must pass before a reward
ratio schedule
number of behaviors performed prior to a reward
fixed-ratio schedule
reinforces behavior after a set of numbered behaviors
ex of fixed ratio schedule
after spending a certain amount of money, I get free food from Costa Vida
variable-ratio schedule
reinforces behavior after an unpredictable number of behaviors
Ex of variable ratio schedule
gambling
fixed-interval schedule
reinforces behavior after a certain amount of time has passed
ex of fixed interval schedule
after 45 min. of homework, i get a 15 min. break
variable-interval schedule
reinforces behavior after an unpredictable amount of time
ex of variable interval
fishing
punishment vs reinforcement
punishment decreases behavior, reinforcement increases behavior
Immediate vs. Delayed Reinforcement
immediate reinforcement is more effective, but reward from delayed reinforcement is often more valuable
immediate vs delayed punishment
immediate is more effective in the moment, but delayed can have a greater long-term effect
Applied Behavior Analysis
the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
Albert Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment
after observing adults be aggressive to a doll, children were aggressive to the doll as well
tolman quote
much of our behavior is goal directed
latent learning
unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
insight learning
a form of problem solving in which one develops a sudden insight into the problem's solution
biological constraints
"humans cannot breathe under water, fish cannot ski"
instinctive drift
the tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning
preparedness
The species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.