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Which of the following is inappropriate when collecting urine for routine bacteria culture?

Sample may be held at 2-8˚C for up to 48 hours prior to plating

Which urine color is correlated correctly with the pigment-producing substance?

Deep yellow urine and yellow foam with bilirubin

A brown or black pigment in urine can be caused by:


Urine that is dark red or port wine in color may be caused by:

Porphyria cutanea tarda

Which of the following tests is affected least by standing or improperly stored urine?


Urine production of less than 400 mL/day is:


Urine with a SG consistently between 1.002 and 1.003 indicates:

Diabetes insipidus

Which of the following is most likely to cause a false-positive dry reagent strip test for protein?

Highly buffered alkaline urine

Which statement best describes the clinical utility of tests for microalbuminuria?

Testing may detect early renal involvement in diabetes mellitus

In which of the following conditions is glycosuria most likely?


A positive glucose oxidase test and a negative test for reducing sugars indicate:

True glycosuria

A negative glucose oxidase test and a positive test for reducing sugars in urine indicate:

Presence of a nonglucose reducing sugar such as galactose

Ketones are detected in urine by reaction with:

Sodium nitroprusside

Which ketone body is sodium nitroprusside specifically reacting with in the ketone test?

Acetoacetic acid

Which of the following conditions is associated with a negative blood test and an increase in urine urobilinogen?

Extravascular hemolytic anemia

Which of the following results are discrepant?

Negative blood but 6-10 RBCs/high power field

Which of the following reagents is used to detect urobilinogen in urine?


Which statement about the dry reagent strip test for leukocytes is true?

The reaction is based upon the hydrolysis of substrate by WBC esterases

Which of the following statements about creatinine clearance is correct?

Creatinine clearance is dependant on lean body mass

All of the following statements regarding urinary casts are true except:

Casts can be seen in significant numbers even when protein tests are negative

What is the mucoprotein that forms the matrix of a hyaline cast is called?

Tamm-Horsfall protein

What is the sediment with moderate hematuria and RBC casts most likely results from?

Acute glomerulonephritis

What does a urine sediment characterized by pyuria with bacterial and WBC casts indicate?


Which type of casts signals the presence of chronic renal failure?

Waxy casts

When examining urinary sediment, which of the following is considered an abnormal finding?

0-1 renal cell casts/lpf

Which of the following crystals is considered nonpathological?

Ammonium biurate

At which pH are ammonium biurate crystals usually found in urine?

Alkaline urine only

What are oval fat bodies are derived from?

Renal tubular epithelium

What are oval fat bodies are often associated with?

Tubular necrosis

Which condition is associated with the greatest proteinuria?

Nephrotic syndrome

What is acute pyelonephritis is commonly caused by?

Bacterial infection

Which statement about renal calculi is true?

Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate account for about three quarters of all stones

What crystals are the cause of gout?

Uric acid or monosodium urate

A glitter cell is a term used to describe a specific type of


What is the final phase of degeneration that granular casts undergo?


Alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary disease, is characterized by the urine excretion of

Homogentisic acid

Excessive lipid metabolism, as is seen in diabetes mellitus, is indicated by the presence in the urine of

Ketone bodies

A reagent test strip impregnated with a diazonium salt may be used to determine which analyte?


The strip test for hemoglobin may yield false positive results for the presence of hemoglobin when the urine specimen contains


With infections of the urinary system, which WBC is most often seen?


What causes increased urinary excretion of protein during the day while at night there is a normal excretion of protein?

Orthostatic proteinuria

What microscopic element is seen in uncontrolled diabetic patients?


Nitrite in a urine specimen suggests the presence of:


What shows abnormal skeleton structure, mental retardation and corneal damage?

Hurler syndrome

What is true about the final concentrating of urine in the kidney?

Vasopressin controls the collecting duct reabsorption of water

What grows in urine specimen is left standing at room temperature for several hoursing changes may occur?


What can Phenylketonuria cause if left untreated?

Brain damage.

What abnormality is sex linked, impacts the skeleton and mental retardation?

Hunter syndrome

Patients with diabetes insipidus tend to produce urine in ______ volume with _______ specific gravity.

Increased, decreased

What is the name of a subarachnoid hemorrhage that is not a traumatic tap?


If a fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL is obtained, what is the expected fasting CSF glucose level?

65 mg/dL

What term used to denote a high WBC count in the CSF?


The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is often based upon which finding?

The presence of oligoclonal bands by electrophoresis

Which organism is the most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Group B streptococci

Which test best correlates with the severity of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)?

Amniotic fluid bilirubin

Which is the reference method for determining fetal lung maturity?

L/S ratio

What is true regarding the L/S ratio ?

A ratio of 2:1 or greater usually indicates adequate pulmonary surfactant to prevent respiratory distress syndrome

What is is the lower limit of normal for sperm concentration?

20 million/mL

What stain is used to determine sperm viability?

Eosin Y

What has the presence of WBC casts and no bacteria?

Acute Interstitial Nephritits

Where in the kidney does the concentration of urine occur?


What urine chemical is affected by light?


What serious medical condition characterized by major shock and renal failure following a crushing injury to skeletal muscle.

Crush syndrome

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