Anatomy and Physiology 2: Part 1
Terms in this set (100)
makes all proteins secreted from the cell; it also makes proteins and phospholipids destined for the plasma membrane
site of protein synthesis
control center for cell where DNA is found
move in unison, creating a water current which moves substances across the cell surface
site of ATP production; often called the powerhouse of the cell
modifies and then packages substances into vesicles for transport to their final destination (either elsewhere in the cell or to the plasm membrane); often called the warehouse of the cell
site of intracellular digestion; often called suicide packages
site of lipid and steroid synthesis; lipid metabolism; drug detoxification
detoxification, especially of toxic hydrogen peroxide
related to muscle contraction and intracellular movement; part of cytoskeleton
regulates passage of substances between the cytoplasm and nucleus
stable cytoskeletal elements which resist mechanical forces
cell membrane structure that propels sperm
The blood volume of an average adult is:
The WBC involved in histamine release and inflammatory response is:
The hormone that prompts erythropoiesis is:
The most numerous WBC is the
Normal blood pH is
Would you WBC count increase or decrease in the initial stages of an infection?
transport of respiratory gases
involved in parasitic worm infestations and allergic responses
phagocytic; quick response; bacteria slayers
phagocytic; long-term response; macrophages
release heparin and histamine
involved in immune response and antibody production
Cause of pernicious anemia
deficiency of intrinsic factor leading to inadequate vitamin B12 absorption
cause of iron deficiency anemia
dietary lack of iron
Cause of hemorrhagic anemia
Cause of aplastic anemia
destruction of myeloid tissue by radiation, viruses, some drugs and poison (arsenic, benzene, mustard gas) or autoimmune disease
Cause of hemolytic anemia
RBC destruction Ex: drug reactions, poisoning, parasitic infection, hereditary hemoglobin defects, blood type incompatibilites
Cause sickle-cell anemia
caused by a recessive allele that modifies hemoglobin. makes deformed, pointed erythrocytes
After a monocyte moves into a tissue, it transforms into a very large phagocytic cell called a
There are two main types of lymphocytes:
T and B cells
A third type of lymphocyte is called a _____________________. It attacks tumor cells and virus-infected cells before the immune response is activated.
natural killer cell
Can A type blood be safely given to an O blood individual?
Can O type blood be safely given to an A blood individual?
Dense irregular connective tissue can be found as a primary tissue in the
capsules of organs
What type of cartilage is found on costal cartilages?
The tissue containing striated, multi-nucleated, long and linear cells:
This embryonic tissue gives rise to the muscles and bone:
Cardiac muscle has:
smooth muscle has:
non-striated, one nucleus
Extracelluar matrix is
very thin, tightly packed cells
true or false: epithelium is composed of large amounts of extracelluar matrix:
Where is one location we would find non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
Which cells produce collagen and elastin?
fibroblast, osteoblast, chondroblast
true or false: The epithelial tissue and cartilage contain no blood vessels
TRUE - there is no room between the cells. The layer underneath provides nutrients
Blood is a:
What organ that was both an endocrine and exocrine organ that was discussed?
Exocrine secretion of the liver
endocrine secretion of the liver
Loose connective tissue contains 3 tissue types. What are they?
Three cells that you might find in connective tissue
fibroblasts, macrophages, and leukocytes
Describe what constitutes matrix components:
ground substance - proteoglycans and glycoproteins; fibrous proteins - fibroblasts and fibronectin; collagen, elastin, and glycocalyx (made of sugars)
The vaginal canal and esophagus are lined with what tissues?
non-keratinized stratified squamous cells
5 functions of connective tissues
2. physical protection
3. heat production
5. immune protection (mineral storage, fat storage, clotting)
Tendons and ligaments are made of what tissue type?
dense regular connective tissue (collagen)
Describe the phases of tissue repair:
1. Damaged mast cells release histamine, brings blood to the area. Plasma in the wound carries antibodies and clotting proteins
2. Blood clot forms scab that blocks infection while macrophages digest tissue debris underneath
3. new blood capillaries grow into the wound, fibroblasts deposit new collagen
4. surface epithelial cells move to the wound and scab falls off (epithelium regenerates)
Lymph that was filtered in the left leg would eventually travel into the:
Lymph interfaces and integrates with the blood again at the:
5 organs associated with the lymphatic/immune system
Red bone marrow
An example of one type of antigen-presenting cell (APC):
dendritic cells, macrophages, reticular cells, and B cells
These are the following tonsils:
The spleen functions as a:
hematopoietic center in the fetus
disposal center for RBCs
A place where antigens can be detected
The following are non-specific defense mechanisms (also called innate immunity):
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Which of the following are mechanisms by which complement works:
phagocytosis by opsonization
The process by which neutrophils are attracted to areas of inflammation is called:
One function of a fever:
promotes interferon activity, inhibits reproduction of bacteria and viruses, and elevated metabolic rate, accelerates tissue repair
receiving a mumps vaccination is an example of:
These cells produce antibodies
What are the 6 elements that make up 98.5% of the body weight?
In the element of sodium, the valence shell has how many electrons?
What is an ion? Describe sodium and chloride ions.
an ion is an element that has donated or gained and electron. a charged particle with an unequal number of protons and electrons.
Na gives it away while Cl receives an electron
Effects of electrolyte imbalance
fatigue, cramps, loss of muscle control, brain fog, confusion. Less sodium available through sweating, there is a lack of charge in ions.
chemical particles composed of two more more atoms united by a chemical bond. They may be the same atom or different. N2
molecules composed of 2 or more elements (CO2)
any proton donor, a molecule that releases a proton (H+) in water
NaCl is bound by what type of bond
A chemical that conducts an electrical current in solution is known as an
An acid would fit into which pH category best
Proteins are made of monomer subunits known as
Sugar form part of the cell membrane known as the ___________________, which is involved in cell to cell reception
which of the following is not a lipid:
True or false: Enzymes are proteins
ATP is a
What is metabolism and its two subdivisions
metabolism is the sum of all catabolic and anabolic activity in the body. Catabolic = decomposition; anabolic = synthesis
The chemical bonding that allows amino acids subunits to be linked together into long chains that eventually get folded into proteins is a reactions known as:
a synthesis reaction
The process by which glycogen molecules are cleaved into individual subunits of glucose monomers is known as:
a decomposition reaction
The three things that can increase reaction rates in the body:
Heat - causes molecules to move rapidly and collide with greater force and frequency
concentration - the molecules are more crowded and collide more frequently
catalysts - a catalyst speeds up reactions, like enzymes.
The four major macromolecules categories found in the body
the opposite of dehydration synthesis. A water molecule ionizes into OH- and H. An enzyme breaks the covalent bond linking one monomer to another, and adds OH- to one monomer and H+ to the other one.
also called condensation. An enzyme removes a hydroxyl (-OH) group from one monomer and a hydrogen (-H) from another, producing water as a by product.
Each amino acids in a special bond known as a _______________ bond.
7 functions of proteins within the body
recognition and protection
What factors change an enzymes shape and effect its action or ability to act on a substrate:
notably temperature and pH; they alter or destroy its ability to bind its substrate. The disrupt hydrogen bonds and other weak forces that hold the enzyme in its proper place/conformation, changing the shape of the "lock" so that the "key" no longer fits
Where do we find high levels of nucleic acids in the cells?
What is found in the cytosol/cytoplasmic region?
organelles, water, electrolytes
The plasma membrane is made of
proteins and lipids; it defines the boundaries of the cell
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