Criminal Justice exam 1
study these to pass the 1st exam, girl
Terms in this set (79)
Maintaining order is also known as
keeping the peace
Making an arrest is an example of
enforcing the law
Wilson and Kelling's broken windows theory argues that there is a relationship between higher crime rates and the
level of deterioration of a neighborhood
What is considered the central nervous system of policing that coordinates the performance of law enforcement activities?
An area of concentrated crime where there is a higher risk of victimization is known as a
Which police department developed CompStat?
New York City
Which group is most supportive of law enforcement?
Elder abuse includes all of the following
Physical abuse, emotional abuse, and abandonment
Almost half of all policing agencies have fewer than how many sworn officers?
Communications across jurisdictions is called
Who performs the bulk of police work?
Second leading cause of wrongful convictions
The derivative evidence rule is also known as the
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine
This Amendment states that no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself
According to the courts, who has a reduced expectation of privacy?
School children, parolees, probationers, and prisoners.
This Amendment states that criminal defendants are entitled to the help of an attorney at trial.
Excessive use of force by police is
What act gave the government wide authority to engage in various kinds of electronic surveillance?
These people are not limited by the 4th Amendment
Private security officers
A Terry Stop is permitted when police have this to believe that a person is engaged in criminal activity
Mandatory arrest policies were created to help reduce police discretion in incidents of
Intimate partner violence
This rule states that evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment cannot be used against a suspect in a criminal trial.
This allows for illegally obtained evidence to be admissible if police officers would have discovered it anyway had they used the proper procedures.
Inevitable discovery exception
Which case required that defendants must be informed of certain rights prior to custodial interrogation?
Miranda V. Arizona
In order for an act to be a search or seizure, the target of the act must have an
Expectation of privacy
This Amendment protects residents from unreasonable searches and seizures
Which would be considered a private place according to the 4th Amendment?
a person's home
This test established by the Supreme Court means that confessions are inadmissible unless made willingly.
This means there is a lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies
Policing started off as a ______affair
This allow officers to act in a manner they judge most appropriate in a given situation
Which era of policing used organized residents to punish people deemed outlaws?
This is a set of beliefs held by police officers
Police occupational subculture
Which is a mission of preventive patrol?
Maintaining a visible presence in a community to act as a deterrent to street level crimes.
Individuals who receive an early release from prison, based on complying with certain standards while free, are under what type of supervision?
The Crime Control Model is mainly focused on
efficient arrest and processing of alleged offenders
These crimes are wrong by nature or are known as wrong
Mala in se
These crimes are legally wrong and prohibited by the law. They are statutory crimes
These are informal rules that are not written, but we know and follow them.
This sets the criminal justice system into motion
Violation of formal norms, or laws.
Rewards for good behavior and punishments for bad behavior are
Statistics indicate that the level of fear of crime in the general public has ________ over the past couple of years.
Women are more likely to be victimized by
someone they know
This group is most likely to be victims of crime
In order for a behavior to be considered a crime it must be
defined by society as a crime
What system does the U.S. Supreme Court belong to?
Offenders who commit street crimes (e.g., muggings, burglaries) are typically sentenced to much more severe sentences than white-collar criminals (e.g., tax evasion, fraud). More money also is allocated to fight street crime than is allocated to fight white collar crime. The disparities in punishments for these two types of crimes are evidence of what type of society?
A group of young men get caught breaking into a convenience store at night to steal packs of cigarettes. Because it is their first offense, the judge sentences them to remain in the community under court supervision, without any time incarcerated. What type of sanction did they receive?
The two courts of the United States dual-court system are the
state and federal
After black males, this group has the second highest incarceration rate.
When it comes to the race of the victim and offender, most crimes are
The due process model is mainly focused on
n 2004 Scott Peterson went on trial for the murder of his wife and unborn child. Even before the trial, the case had a great deal of media attention. In fact, from the time the victim, Lindsay Peterson, was reported missing, the news reported extensively on the case. After a long trial, Scott was found guilty of a capital crime and was sentenced to death by lethal injection in 2005. In Westernized cultures, Scott Peterson's crime would most likely be classified as
Mala in se
What decade was the height of the due process model?
The model illustrating that most criminal cases do not go through the trial process is the
Wedding cake model
Which perspective argues that laws are made to serve to represent the interest of the public majority?
Behaviors that society considers deviant
change across time and location
Which perspective argues that laws are tools of those who control society, used to serve their self-interest?
Which criminal justice actor has the responsibility of instructing the jury for rendering a verdict?
Which movement resulted in the reform of the criminal justice system to be more concerned with victims of crime?
Victims Rights Movement
What famous case, introduced in 1966, made it a requirement for police to notify suspects of their rights?
Miranda V. Arizona
In what system were men responsible for patrolling the streets, lighting lanterns, serving as lookout for fires, and generally keeping order?
The ________ places loyalty to fellow officers above all other values.
Blue Code of Silence
Police departments do NOT
Provide court security
What was the purpose of the first publicly funded city police departments in the United States?
Slave patrols to keep slaves from rebelling or running away
Tammy wants to become a police officer. However, she has not finished the minimum education requirements that her local police department requires. Tammy accepted a position as a records technician at the police department. Tammy is considered to be
Contemporary curricula of a police academy include
human diversity, special populations, ethics and integrity, and community building.
The nation's oldest federal law enforcement agency is the
Which of the following are used instead of live-scenario exercises, which are expensive and potentially dangerous?
Which jurisdiction was the first to pass an ordinance giving women the title and pay of "patrolman"?
In which era of policing did police receive jobs because of political affiliation and enforce the priorities of the political party in power?
What is often the best preparation for the knowledge and skills officers are asked to exercise in community policing?
All of the following are indications of a "qualified" applicant to a police department EXCEPT
Peacekeeping system in early England in which a group of 10 local families agreed to maintain the peace and make sure lawbreakers were taken into custody and brought to court.
Serves larger, more rural areas with fewer people
Serves smaller, urban areas with more people
The lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies in the same geographic region due to the existence of many small departments.
Police view of themselves as a "band of brothers or sisters" against everyone else in society
Method of learning that emphasizes engaging the learner by incorporating the learner's experiences in the curriculum. This is replacing the traditional lecture form of academy instruction.
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