Sociology 101 - Exam I, Chapter I
Terms in this set (30)
The scientific study of human social relationships, groups, and societies.
The Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills states it as: the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them.
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change whether on a small or large scale.
Patterned social arrangements that have an effect on Agency.
The ability to evaluate claims about the truth by using reason and evidence.
The Six Rules of Critical Thinking (Wade and Tavris)
1. Be willing to ask any question, no matter how difficult.
2. Thinking logically and be clear.
3. Back up your arguments with evidence.
4. Think about the assumptions and biases-including that of your own-that underlie all studies.
5. Avoid anecdotal evidence.
6. Be willing to admit you're wrong or uncertain about your results.
Development of Sociological Thinking
Scientific Revolution: belief in science and reason.
The Enlightenment: equality, liberty, and fundamental human rights.
The Industrial Revolution: shift from agriculture to manufacturing.
Urbanization: mass migration from rural farms to urban factories.
"Founder of Sociology." Coined term: Positivism: knowledge based on scientific reasoning and facts.
"First Female Sociologist."
Pioneered Methodology. Mechanical Solidarity: traditional, bonds based on similarity. Organic Solidarity: modern industrial, bonds based on specialization and interdependence.
Economic and Political Thinker. Society characterized by class conflict, in which the bourgeoisie own the means of production and exploit the proletariat for their own gain.
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society. Described how Protestantism fostered the rise of capitalism, and made contributions in understanding formal rationality and bureaucracies.
Robert Ezra Park
Ecological-Conflict Theorist. The Chicago School Experiment. Pioneer of urban sociology and race relations.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910. Theorized that African Americans experience a double-consciousness, an awareness of themselves both as Americans and as blacks, never free from racial stigma.
Theorized Manifest Function (obvious and intended functions of a given phenomenon or institution), as well as Latent Function (functions that are not recognized or expected). Founded the Theory of Deviance.
C. Wright Mills
A sociologist who presented the idea of a mostly nongovernmental power elite. Corporate leaders, generals, and politicians etc., that make key decisions. Founded the Sociological Imagination.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement (Hull House). First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Pioneered the study of neighborhoods.
Logical, rigorous frameworks for the interpretation of social life that make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about the social world.
Large-scale patterns and institutions.
Social relations and interactions in specific, individual situations.
Explains social organization and change in terms of the functions performed by different social structures. Asks: what is the function of ______?
Underlying Assumption of (functionalism)
if it exists and persists, it must serve a function.
Weakness of (functionalism)
fails to recognize inequality and its effects on social relationships.
Emile Durkheim: function of deviance is to define what is "normal," what is considered right and good.
Talcott Parsons: Traditional gender roles permit social stability. Men socialized into instrumental roles: rational, work-oriented. Women socialized into expressive roles: sensitive, nurturing, emotional.
Explains social organization and change in terms of the conflict built into social relationships. Asks: who benefits? Who loses? Each group in society will act in their own self-interest (class, race, gender etc.). Weakness of theory: overlooks the forces of stability, equilibrium, and consensus in society.
Karl Marx: conflict between capitalist class, and working class over wages and productivity.
Theodore Adorno: control of culture serves to uphold class domination.
Feminism: focus shifts from social class to gender class.
Critical Race Theory: focus on conflict between racial groups.
Both the individual self and society are the result of social interactions based on language and other symbols. Asks: how do we interact? How do we create and interpret symbols? People acquire a sense of who they are through interactions with others. Weakness of theory: focuses on the micro-level, and obscures larger structural contexts.
Principal Themes of Sociology: Power and Inequality
Power and Inequality: How the unequal distribution of social, economic, political power, and resources shape opportunities, obstacles, and relationships. Who has the power? Who doesn't? What are the negative effects of inequality? Etc.
Principal Themes of Sociology: Globalization and Global Diversity
People across the world are becoming increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally. Manifestations, functions, and consequences of globalization. Social and cultural mixture of different groups and ethnocentrism.
Principal Themes of Sociology: Technology and Digital Society
The practical application of knowledge to transform natural resources for human use. Information revolution. Post-industrial economies based on the production of knowledge rather than the production of goods.