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The Odyssey: Notes and Books 1-4
Terms in this set (68)
Hero's Quest/Hero's Journey
This is the common template of a broad category of tales that involve a hero who goes on an adventure, and in a decisive crisis, wins a victory, and then comes home changed or transformed.
A long narrative poem written in elevated style, in which heroes of great historical or legendary importance perform brave deeds. The setting is vast in scope, covering great nations, the world, or the universe, and the action is important to the story of a nation or people.
A type of hero from traditional world mythology. An epic hero is male, of noble birth, has superhuman capabilities, travels vast distances, battles monsters and temptations and descends into darkness (the abyss) as the challenges intensify. Despite the intense challenges he faces, an epic hero ultimately achieves his goal.
En Media Res
This is an awesome story-telling technique: it literally means the story begins "in the middle of things". For instance, The Odyssey opens with Odysseus the hero trapped on beautiful Calypso's island. The reader is dropped into the middle of the crisis without explanation of how the situation came to be. Exposition is bypassed and will be filled in later through flashback and dialogue.
The Muses were the Greek goddesses responsible for inspiring works of literature, history, art and science. The Greeks believed these goddesses actually decided which humans would receive divine inspiration to write great epic poems, design beautiful buildings and the like.
the Greek concept of hospitality in the ancient world. Greek hosts were expected to treat guests very generously: hosts typically offered guests a bath, fresh clothing, food, lodging, parting gifts, and transportation to their intended destination.
A coming-of-age story that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood in which character change is extremely important.
The Greek concept of excellence and perfection in the ancient world
Arete for Greek Females
Example: remaining loyal for twenty years to her long-lost husband (an ancient wifely version of excellence)
Arete for Greek Males
Example: surviving brutal physical challenges (an ancient male version of excellence).
This is foolish pride or dangerous over-confidence. In its ancient Greek context, it typically describes behavior that defies the norms of behavior or challenges the gods, and which in turn brings about downfall.
Power of the gods
The ancient Greeks believed there were a great number of gods and goddesses. These gods had control over many different aspects of life on earth. But, in many ways they were very human. They could be kind or mean, angry or pleasant, cruel or loving. They fell in love with each other, argued with each other and even stole from each other. They were also believed to control the fate of human beings depending on their opinion of the individual human.
The philosophy of "what comes around goes around"; involves the idea that built into the natural laws of the world and humanity is a corrective force to punish wrong-doers with a taste of their own medicine.
denotes one's ability to achieve their own ends, sometimes through deceit or evasion.
The Greek word for "return"; a theme used in Greek literature which includes an epic hero returning home by sea. This journey is extensive and includes being shipwrecked in an unknown location and going through certain trials that test the hero. The return isn't just about returning home physically but also about retaining certain statuses and retaining your identity upon arrival.
a sentimental longing for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations.
An extended comparison between two objects that is used to redirect the reader's attention in unexpected, humorous, gruesome or beautiful ways.
a descriptive word or phrase which an author regularly uses to describe an object or, more often, a person. Example: *The Earth-Shaker Poseidon
Book 1: Where are the gods and goddesses and what are they doing?
On mt. Olympus having a get together
Book 1: Where do we learn Odysseus is located at the beginning of the story?
On an island with a women named Calypso
Book 1: Which of the Olympian gods is Odysseus's enemy and why
Poseidon because Odysseus blinded his son
Book 1: Which goddess sympathizes with Odysseus? What does she suggest Hermes do and what will she herself do?
Athena sympathizes Odysseus. She suggest Hermes to send message to calypso to free Odysseus. She will ask Zeus for help
Book 1: As whom does Athena disguise herself when she visits Telemakhos ?
Book 1: What does Telemakhos seem to believe about his father?
That he's dead
Book 1: What does Mentes tell Telemakhos about his father?
That his father is still alive and is on an island held against his will
Book 1: What are the suitors doing in Odysseus's house?
They are there for Penelope Odysseus's wife
Book 1: Where does Mentes tell Telemakhos he should go and why? What "ultimatum" does she suggest?
To go see Nestor at Pylos, then to see Menelaus at Sparta and ask for news about Odysseus. She suggests if Odysseus is dead that Tel. should defeat the suitors himself. If Odysseus is alive, wait 1 year for his return and Odysseus will have his revenge
Book 1: When Athena leaves Telemakhos, what change occurs in him and what does he realize about his visitor?
He becomes more wise and aware. He realizes his visitor must've been a god
Book 1: We briefly meet Penelope. what emotion(s) does she display?
She displays sadness because she is grieving over her husband
Book 1: What does Telemakhos announce to the suitors?
" Im going to call a meeting tomorrow and tell you to either leaver or I will ask Zeus to kill you"
Book 1: How would you describe the suitors' reactions to Tel.'s announcement?
Book 1: Who is Eurykleia?
Book 1: Describe Telemakhos
A young man who realizes he needs to stand up for himself
Book 1: Why do you think Athena disguises herself- why doesn't she just reveal to Telemakhos that his father is alive
She doesn't want the suitors to know that Telemakhos has a goddess on his side, She wants him to grow up, and there has to be a quest
Book 2: What does Telemachus do that has not been done since Odysseus left for Troy?
Call an assembly
Book 2: What can readers INFER based on the fact that there has not been assembly since Odysseus left for Troy?
The system of government in Ithaca has broken down; there is a lack of organization and leadership. Ithaca is in decline as a city state of Greece.
Book 2: What exactly does Telemachus accuse the suitors of doing?
stealing his livestock: goats, cattle and wine.
Book 2: Penelope told the suitors she would chose a husband after she completed which task?
Weaving a shroud for her father in law's burial.
Book 2: What did Penelope do to trick the suitors?
She undid part of the weaving her night.
Book 2: How was Penelope's trick about the shroud discovered?
One of her servant maidens betrayed her by telling the suitors.
Book 2: What does Antinoos, a suitor, suggest that Telemachus do?
Order his mother to choose a suitor!
Book 2: If he should force his mother to marry a suitor, who does Telemachus believe will be his enemies?
his grandfather and the gods
Book 2: Who or what is the "sign" from the gods?
Eagles that attack the suitors!
Book 2: Antinoos
The suitor who blames Penelope for the suitors staying at the palace for so long and tells Telemachus to force his mother to marry!
Book 2: Eurymachus
The suitor who says they fear no one.
Book 2: What does Telemachus say he will do if he discovers his father is dead while on his journey?
1. give him a burial- an important Greek custom 2. tell his mother to take a new husband
Book 2: Telemachus enters the assembly with his dog. What do does SYMBOLIZE or represent?
Loyalty and companionship
What land does Telemachus visit in Book 3?
Who is the King of Pylos?
What god does Mentor pray to?
What important Greek custom is happening when Telemachus arrives in Pylos?
Sacrifice for the god Poseidon
According to King Nestor, what did Agamemnon want to do after the Trojan War?
Stay and sacrifice to Poseidon.
What did Menelaus want to do after the Trojan War?
Set sail for home
Who are the men from the house of Atreus?
Agamemnon, Menelaus, Orestes
Which of the brothers from the house of Atreus did Odysseus follow FIRST?
Book 3: What happened to Agamemnon on his homecoming day?
He was stabbed in the back by Aegisthus.
Book 3: Who has made a name for himself by taking vengeance?
Orestes- Agamemnon's son
Book 3: What famous Greek warrior does King Nestor suggest Telemachus go see?
Menelaus the red haired King of Sparta
Book 3: What is the sign that the gods favor Telemachus and Odysseus?
Mentes (Athena in disguise) transforms into a bird and flies away.
Book 3: What is a hecatomb?
A sacrifice to the gods- usually cattle or livestock; sometimes a person!
Book 4: Where does Telemachus arrive?
King of Sparta
Queen of Sparta
Book 4: Who recognizes Telemachus
Helen, she welcomes them
Book 4: What does Helen tell Telemachus
great stories of Odysseus and that they have heard news of him
Book 4: Who did Menelaus hear the news from
Book 4: What was the news of Odysseus
Whereabouts of Odysseus
Book 4: What were the suitors planning while Telemachus was gone
To kill him
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