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Connotative Meaning

The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase

Denotative Meaning

The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.


An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as" between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.

Example of simile

"air pollution is eating away at the monuments in Washington D.C like a giant Alka-Seltzer tablet."

Example of Metaphor

"America's citites are the windows through which the world looks at American society."


"we should not demean our democracy with the politics of distraction, denial, and despair"


"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."

Inclusive language

Language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors

Ways to avoid inclusive lang

Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender and inclusive he


Language of the street that is informal colorful expressions that may be widely used but still not standard language and inappropriate in some settings.

Manuscript, Memory, Impromptu, Extemporaneous

What are the 4 methods of speech delivery?


The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice

Vocal Variety

Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.


The accepted standard of sounds and rhythm for words in a given language.


The physical production of particular speech sounds.

Defective Persuasion

Occurs often in our society either-or-thinking artificially restricts choices to a good or bad option (there may be other options)

Questions of fact, value, or policy

Types of persuasive speeches

Questions of fact

a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion

Speech on value

A quesiton about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action

passive agreement or immediate action

What 2 things does persuasive speeches attempt to gain?

Awareness, Understanding, Agreement, Enactment, Integration

Process of persuasion has 5 steps or phases

Reluctant Audience

What are some challenges to effective speaking?

Initial, Derived, Terminal

What are the different types of credibility?

Competence, Character, Likeableness, Forcefulness

What are the four parts of ethos?

Specific instances, principle, causual reasoning, analogical reasoning

What are the four types of reasoning?

Identification and Magnification

What are the different ceremonial speaking techniques?

Speeches of Introduction, Presentation, Acceptance, commemorative

Speeches that fall into the category of Ceremonial speeches

Building Credibility

What is the first stage of the Persuasive Process?

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