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History II Test 1
Terms in this set (75)
A process, invented in the 1850s by the English engineer Henry Bessemer, that involved turning iron ore into steel
Great american inventor (late 1800s) that had over 1000 patents, and he forever changed world of electricity with the light bulb
licenses that give an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for a set period of time
Product that shapes the modern world; Revolutionary
What are the three factors needed for industrial development?
Land and resources, labor, and capital money
What are the materials necessary for industrial development?
Raw materials, iron ore, coal, and oil
Steel King; Made a vast fortune by building steel mills in the county; one of the wealthiest men in the world and one of the robber barons
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Robber Barons/Captains of Industry
Owned nearly every major industry and had complete control over them; Carnegie-Steel, Rockefeller-Oil, Duke-Tobacco, Morgan-Banking
John D. Rockefeller
Constructed empire of standard oil and created the business model of trust (chairmen), gives complete control of property to person/industry
Dominated banking interest and was best known for taking companies and merging them together to make giant companies such as US Steel, AT&T, International Harvester, General electric
Why were the robber barons critized?
They engaged in many unfair business practices, monopolies allowed them to set unfair prices and keep competition out, how they treated their workers, and the living conditions they gave them
The Gospel of Wealth
Book that Carnegie wrote that tried to make the robber barons feel better about their massive fortunes; Super rich give to super poor for public good; Constructed libraries, universities, museums, and concert halls
Did big article on life on the steel mill
What were the working conditions like for american worker?
Worked 6 days a week, 10 hrs. a day with no breaks; Average wage around 1.10, and they had no benefits such as health insurance, work compensation for sick days (No job if you left sick)
What was child labor like?
More than 1.8 million children working full time, 60 hrs. a week, and only quarter of the salary their parents made; Children were valuable workers b/c of size of arms and hands-could reach inside machinary
How did workers resist work?
Break machinery's, work slow, walk off the job
mutual aid societies
Met in churches, bars, and town halls; for small fee, workers looked out for one another such as oddfellows (burial aid)
POLITICAL unions that seek to get government to pass legislation for work protection, higher wages
What is the difference between mutual aid societies and labor unions?
Labor unions are political
Knights of Labor
The FIRST well organized labor union that called for 8 hr workday, prohibition of child labor, abolition of liquor (Led by Terrance Powderly)
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor; didnt allow women and only few minorities members were allowed
the most powerful tool labor unions possessed that forced owner to shut down and not make any money
Workers would go to work, go to station, and refuse to budge
workers who crossed the picked lines
Men who were paid to break and end strikes by FORCE. Often retired, off duty policemen, or thugs who like to hit
Railroad Strike of 1877
Largest strike in US History where rail workers shut down all rail traffic; Baltimore and Ohio sent strike breakers which led to dozen deaths and injured (BIG BUIS. WINS)
the absense of law, and hoped to create enough chaos to overthrow government and economies; All government is evil
Haymarket Affair 1886
Changed the way americans viewed labor unions in Chicago; Killed 4 Workers; Anarchists threw a bomb into police line & Killing one and injuring several; Police fired and killed many- Anarchists never caught
What happened in response to the Haymarket Affair?
Portrayed all union members as bomb throwing anarchists; If you belong to a labor union, you must be an Anarchists
George Pullman (manufacatored luxury boxcars) built an entire town where he cut wages and laid off workers- then he refused to reduce rents that workers had to pay; Therefore, they convinced american railroad union to boycott railroad using rail road cars
Town built around factory that was referred to as pullmans heaven; no fights, prohibition of alcohol
What happened in response to the Pullman Strike?
Grover Clevlend claimed that workers were comitting federal offense by not allowing mail to be devlivered without any real evidence- he ordered in us army to put strike down, many were killed and arrested.. PROVES BIG BUIS. STILL WINS!
How did immigrants picture America?
streets were paved of gold, all houses were made of marble
Most immigrants faced extreme hardships and found it difficult to find work, and living conditions were miserable
wrote the book, How the other half lives, that describes how urband poor was forced to live in cramped apartments- tenements
What were tenements like?
Dangerously infested with diseases and pests
How were the living conditions of the urban poor?
sewer systems were overwhelmed, people threw garbage out on street, and pigs&livestock roamed free on the streets
Southern Gospel Movement
charitable aid for the poor that worked against poverty, child labor, and fought drug and alcohol abuse; Leader Dwight L MOODY
How did political bosses gain control?
They manipulated votes and rigged elections so their canditates would win; gained great power and wealth by controlling politics
controlled a vast network in order to maintain loyalty to boss; immigrants in neighborhood were promised aid as long as the voted how the boss wanted them to
George Washington Plunkett
Manhattan 5th Ward Boss that ran shoe shine buisness; helped people in exchange for votes
William Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
Tweed controlled NYC politics and rememered for controlling city politics through bribes, corruption, manipulating ballot box; estimated he stole 200 million bucks- Was jailed for stealing money, escaped to Spain, but was extracted back to NYC= died in ail in 1878
What was the life like for the middle class?
Educational professionals, shopkeepers, clerks, salespeople, and managers that had time for leisure activities
What were the 2 things that middle class had that the urban poor didnt?
Leisure time and disposable income
What is Americas favorite pasttime?
Who was the first baseball team
Cincinnati Red Stockings
What were some leisure activities that were developed?
Movies, plays, public parks- built these parks to keep people out of the cemetaries (Central park in NYC opened in 1853 and expanded in 1870s
What did american farmers suffer from in the end of 1800s?
Low crop prices and high fees
Farmers got together to discuss new farming techniques and worked together to become Farmers Alliance
Came up from the disapearing Grange; Pooled their money and created to provide loans, cheaper places to store crops, and tried to negoitate rail rates cheaper; Pushed state legislature to regulate railroad fees and rates charged by middlemen
Donkey; Andrew Jackson; stood for free silver, 8 hour work day, new freedom workers; William Jennings Bryan- Cross of Gold Speech
Big buisness that support robber barons; Stood for Gold standard, protective tariffs(tax on imports); William Mckinely- won
Populist Party (3rd Party)
Grew out of Farmers Alliance that stood for direct elections of senators, free coinage of silver to increase money supply, 8 hour work day "Moment"; James B Weaver was the first party candidate to reciever over 1 million votes
Silver v Gold
US government controlled money supply by determining how much gold was in circulation; Since its precious, gold is difficult to obtain
Period of bringing in southern states back into the union after civil war; Secretly gave deal to Hayes; End of reconstructon when federal troops were withdrawl from the south- Southern republicans were left without protection from US army
Jim Crow laws purpose
Keep as many african american from voting and restrict poor whites & african americans from votin together by promoting racism and segregation
How did Jim Crow laws keep African Americans from voting?
poll taxes- pay fee to vote (3-5$)
Literacy test- measured understanding of government
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Booker T Washington
Called for african american to work within system to better lifes; only way to gain quality was to gain economic power by policy of accomodation= work towards the top
Black Wall Street
Washington Ex. known as Greenwood, Tulsa, Oklahoma that allowed african american businesses to thrive and prosper (1900s)
Believed that Jim Crow Laws had to be attacked; didnt look for policy of accomodation
The talented tenth
African american leaders showed rest of people how to better themselves (fight political power to end segregation and disfranchisement)
The progressives worked to do what?
clean up everything from politics, living conditions of urban poor, workplace safety, and food&drug safety
Journalists declared to take on rich and powerful; shed light on how business was being conducted; IMPORTANT PART; Sought to bring injustice to light
Settlement House Movement
Community center operated by social reformers started by Jane Adams to help poor and hungry; people could get food, clean bed, and help funding (Hull House)
Tried to aid the poor; believed that it was the responsibility of government to help work out for people; MAJOR SHIFT OF AMERICAN POLITICAL "beginning of activist federal government
Keating-Owen Act (1916)
Made it illegal to move good across state that used child labor in any part of production
Women's Suffrage Movement
Wyoming was the 1st territory and utah followed; argued women should be protected from evils of politics and that they should hold moral order of the nation
Seneca Falls Convention
Birth of womens rights movement (1848) sign declaration of sentiments and resolutions that outlines main issues and goals for emerging womens movement; leader elizabeth stanton and susan anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
served as president of national womens suffrage association; organized march, gave speeches, and devoted her life to the cause
women seeking the right to vote participated in hunger strikes, picketed white house, and civil disobedience
Lawyer that devoted her life to cause of womens suffrage; organized demonstrations, marches, and political rallies; refused to eat, go thrown in jail, and still went back fighting
Paul and others were arrested for obstructing TRAFFIC; went on strike, in prison and transferred to psychoatric ward where they fed her raw eggs from feeding tube
What amendment on august 26,1920 gave women across the US the right to vote?
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