Ap Human Geography- Chapter 9 & 11
Terms in this set (51)
1. A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
2. A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s.
3. An example the creation of the steam engine.
1. Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
2. An industry in which the production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories.
3. For example a shoemaker works our of there homes in most settings within a cottage industry.
1. An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
2. Economic activity in which the final product weighs less than its inputs.
3. An example would be paper and paper products.
1. An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
2. Industry that makes something that gains volume or weight during production.
3. An example would be soda bottles.
1. A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
2. A location where transfer among transportation modes is possible.
3. An example would be in a port, cargoes of ships are unloaded and put on trains and trucks for inland distribution.
1. Least Cost Theory - minimize three costs: Transportation - minimize cost of moving raw materials to the factory and finished products to market; Labor - higher costs reduce profit margins; Agglomeration - when a number of businesses cluster in the same area that assist each other through shared talents, services & facilities.
2. States that an organization is "a purposeful, interpersonal activity designed to coordinate individual tasks." This relies upon authority, specialization, and regulation.
3. An example would be would be the forms used to pay one's income taxes.
1. Geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
2. The amount of land different land users are prepared to pay for locations at various distances form the city center. The result is a tendency for a concentric pattern of land uses.
3. An example would be retailers will be willing to pay high rents for sites near the CBD where accessibility is of prime importance, but will be unwilling to pay much for sites more than about 500 m from the peak land-value intersection, because the distance shoppers are willing to walk is surprisingly short.
1. An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
2. Wages and other compensation paid employees constitute a high percentage of expenses.
3. An example would be an employer losing money due to employee costs which in turn leads to higher unemployment as workers are cut to make a larger profit.
1. A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing.
2. Another name for cloth manufactured goods, made by weaving.
3. An example would be yarn made from she eps wool.
Right to work laws
1. A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
2. Legislation passed by the U.S. government that gives workers the right, under an open shop, to join or not join a union if it is present.
3. An example would be major corporations, such as Tower Automotive, to maintain a so called "open shop" and prohibits a "closed shop."
1. Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
2. A factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company.
3. An example would be Toyota.
1. A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
2. Contracting with an outside company to provide a service or product instead of providing it from within the organization.
3. An example would be Volkswagen outsourcing there company in multiple countries including the USA.
1. The North American Free Trade Agreement was established in 1994 as an international trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Abbreviation: NAFTA
2. The North American Free Trade Agreement is defined as an agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada and Mexico; became effective in 1994 for ten years.
3. Examples of members: The U.S. , Canada, and Mexico
1. Industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms.
2. A general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport.
3. Two great examples are diamonds and computer chips.
1. Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
2. A process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
3. For example, as the United States has deindustrialized, the city of Detroit, which is home to many automakers, has lost approximately half of its population, and consistently maintains a high unemployment rate relative to the rest of the country.
1. Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution, resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market.
2. A linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods, package them fro distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market.
3. An example would be fast food restaurants and their factories linked throughout countries, such as McDonalds.
1. A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
2. A process of improving the material conditions of people by diffusing knowledge and technology in a country.
3. Britain has undergone more development than Ethiopia, as Britain has had far more access to knowledge and technology. However, knowledge and technology is slowly diffusing to Ethiopia, developing it.
Four Economic (Asian) Tigers
1. The definition of 'economic tiger' is - a country whose economy has grown and become successful very quickly. It is a nickname frequently given to the economies of Southeast Asia. Some of the tigers are Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea and China.
2. The term Four Asian Tigers or East Asian Tigers refers to the economies of Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore. They are also known as Asia's Four Little Dragons in Chinese, as these territories have historically been under the Chinese cultural sphere of influence.
3. An example of this economic tiger would be the ranks of GDP (by nominal) List of countries by GDP (nominal) of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore are 12th, 21st, 36th, and 44th, respectively.
1. Heartland is the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture. Rimland is the maritime fringe of a country or continent.
2. Refers to the central areas of a country. This is significant because areas outside of the heartland may not be accessible to the heartland.
3. An example in the United States is the Midwestern region.
1. A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
2. A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semi-peripheral and peripheral regions.
3. A great example of core and periphery is Brazil with the 'golden triangle' at its core and the Amazon being its main peripheral area.
More developed country (MDC)
1. Also known as a relatively developed county or a developed country, a country that has progressed in relativety far along a continuum of development.
2. A country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
3. An example would be the USA.
Less developed country (LDC)
1. Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
2. A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
3. An example would be Angola.
Human Development Index (HDI)
1. Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
2. , A measurement of human development that combines indicators of life expectancy, education levels and income.
3. For example, the countries that have the 25 highest HDI rankings also have the 25 highest GDI rankings.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
1., The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year.
2. The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation.
3. An example to find GDP =consumer spending+ Government spending + investments + Exports - Imports.
1. The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from the Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
2. Most basic jobs (hunting/gathering, nomadic herding, mining, fishing, forestrym, agriculture).
3. An example would be growing corn and soybeans as a form of agriculture.
1. The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
2. awn economic activity where people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value.
3. An example would be milling wheat into flour through food processing.
1.The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
2. Jobs involved with the selling of goods and services in exchange for payment.
3. An example would be doctors, sales people, and dentists.
1. The portion of economy concerned with information, populated with highly-skilled, well trained individuals; data/money.
2. Economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information.
3. An example would be computer and government jobs.
1. Activities involve facilitating complex decision making and the advancement of human capacities, and requires a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill such as research/development; highly skilled.
2. The sub section of the tertiary sector that deals with higher education/research.
3. Example would inculde health, education, research, government, retailing tourism, recreational jobs.
1. The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
2. A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country.
3. For example, in a factory productivity might be measured based on the number of hours it takes to produce a good, while in the service sector productivity might be measured based on the revenue generated by an employee divided by his/her salary.
1. The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
2. The gross value of a product minus the cost of the raw materials and energy needed to produce the product.
3. For example, serving food in a restaurant is a classical case, the added value tax is the tax based on the difference in price for what you pay and what you sell at - the difference - or mark up - is the added value to the product or services.
Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
1. Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
2. Compares the level of development with that of both sexes.
3. An example would be region with the greatest inequality is, by far, Sub-Sahara Africa, with 45 of its 47 countries ranking in bottom 50 GDI slots.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
1.Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
2. Comparison of women and men's ability to participate in economic and political decision making.
3. For example, literature about "empowerment' is found in the fields of education, social work, psychology, etc.
Rostow's Development Model
1., Model created in the 1950's that gives an idea of where a country is in their stage of development. The model of economic development describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries. There are five stages in this model, including: 1. "The traditional society," 2. "The preconditions for takeoff," 3. "The takeoff," 4. "The drive to maturity," 5. "The age of mass consumption."
2. Created by Walter Rostrow—Proposed that countries went through 5 stages of growth between agricultural and service-based economies. Assumed that each country had at least some form of comparative advantage that could be utilized in international trade and thus fund the country's economic development overtime.
3. An example would be the US economic development over last few decades and the international base of trade.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
1. Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
2. Direct investment of capital by foreign nations in a host country.
3. An example of foreign direct investment would be an American company taking a majority stake in a company in China.
1., A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
2. , A firm that conducts business in at least two separate countries; also known as multinational corporations.
3. An example would be would be Apple INC.
1. A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
2. A United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments.
3. An example would be easy currency exchange in different countries.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
1. An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
2. An international organization that acts as a lender of last resort, providing loans to troubled nations, and also works to promote trade through financial cooperation.
3. An example would be providing loans to countries experiencing balance-of-payments problems tat threaten expansion of international trade.
1. Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
2. A market based approach to pay higher prices to producers on exports from developing countries to developed countries in order for the developing countries to obtain better trading conditions and promote sustainability.
3. An example would be Ten Thousand Villages is the largest fair trade organizations in North America, specializing in handicrafts.
1. Economy in which like things are put together to their benefit all businesses but bringing all people to one area increases congestion.
2. The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores.
3. An example would be locations of department store chains such as Walmart, Kroger, JcPenny's, etc.
1. Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
2. Disposed material or renewable resources (such as compost) used to create energy or agricultural products.
3. An example would be cow manure.
1. Energy resources that formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.
2. A nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years.
3. An example would be coal.
1. A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
2. Any source of energy that can be continually produced and is inexhaustible given current conditions.
3. An example would be wind power.
1. A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
2. Any energy produced from a resource that is not easily reproduced comparable to the speed with which it is consumed.
3. An example would be fossil fuels such as coal.
1. An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
2. "Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries." -this oil cartel doubled their petroleum charges in 1979, helping American inflation rise well above 13%.
3. An example would be the purchase of oil from Iran for American use.
1. Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
2. Release of harmful materials into the environment.
3. An example would be excess release of Carbon Dioxide.
1. Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
2. Rain containing nitric and sulfuric acids.
3. An example would be the Smoke Mts, where acid rain has cause for trees to be burnt up from acetic rain.
1. Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
2. Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
3. An example would be carbon dioxide emissions released from vehicles.
1. The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming it it at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
2. Preservation and protection of resources.
3. An example is conservation of U.S. oil reserves.
1. The maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
2. Setting aside areas and protecting them from human activities
3. An example would be the preservation of the Florida Everglades.
1. The number of species within a specific habitat.
2. The diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole).
3. An example would be the biodiversity of lions in an area of the African Safari.