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AP World History Review: Foundations Period
Terms in this set (30)
Why did civilizations in Mesopotamia during the Foundations period have a pessimistic view of the afterlife and the gods?
Unpredictable flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Why did people in Egypt during the Foundations period have an optimistic view of the afterlife and the gods?
Predictable flooding of the Nile River
What is a foraging society?
Composed of small groups of people who traveled from point to point as the climate and available resources changed- were nomadic
What is a pastoral society?
A society characterized by the domestication of animals- used small-scale agriculture
What were some changes that occurred during the Neolithic Revolution?
Permanent settlements, simple tools, domesticated animals, small communities, more disease, better nutrition, food surplus-could store, specialized jobs-more time for recreation
What was cuneiform?
A form of writing developed in ancient Mesopotamia and widely used for centuries in other areas as well
What did the Code of Hammurabi pave the way for in the future?
Our modern legal codes and justice system- it applied the law to nearly everyone(however, there were differing punishments between social classes)
How were traditional customs of different cultures preserved as civilizations declined?
The incoming civilizations often adopted and adapted their customs for their own use
What was the general social structure of ancient Egypt?
Pharaohs were at the top of the social pyramid and held all the power, next were priests, then nobles, then merchants and skilled artisans, then peasants and slaves were at the bottom
Why was the Indus River Valley more isolated than civilizations in Mesopotamia?
The Mesopotamian civilizations were closer together and the Hindu Kush Mountains to the north and west of the Indus River isolated the Indus River Valley
Why did most of the ancient civilizations decline?
They grew too powerful and prosperous so they created envy from others- other people attacked them and the civilization was usually too big to protect all of its borders- prone to invasion and began to weaken
What new religion did the Aryans bring to India after conquering the Indus River Valley around 1,500 B.C.E.?
What was the caste system in Hinduism?
The social structure from top to bottom: priests, warriors, merchants and landowners, peasants- it determined what each person's duty was to society- was little to no mobility
What was the Mandate of Heaven?
The belief that heaven would grant a dynasty power as long as its rulers ruled justly and wisely-started with the Zhou in China and continued for centuries
Why did the Bantus most likely move out of West Africa?
The climate became too dry to live in (the Sahara Desert)
Where did early civilizations develop without any major rivers nearby?
Latin America- the Olmecs in Mexico, and the Chavin in the Andes
Why did the Shang dynasty believe they were superior to other civilizations?
They were more isolated during this time, so they believed they were the center of the world- ethnocentric attitude
How did Hinduism in India affect daily life?
It determined the social structure of a society through the caste system, which allowed little to no social mobility
What is the ultimate goal of Hinduism?
Moksha- the highest state of being- one of perfect internal peace and release of the soul- to merge with Brahma
Why were river valleys ideal places for civilizations to be located?
Rivers provided a regular supply of water, the soil around them was fertile, there were several types of plants and animals to make use of, and it provided transportation
What invention was the first major improvement in easier trade?
Why did the Hittites defeat the Babylonians and become a military superpower?
They learned how to make iron weapons, which was stronger than bronze
How did the introduction of written language affect society?
It allowed people from places all around the world to communicate with one another, and history began to be recorded, which gave future generations a better understanding of the world in the past
Why did personal ownership lead to more conflict between people?
People were no longer equal, and ownership created envy from others
Why didn't pastoral societies settle down?
They had to continually search for new grazing areas and water for their herds
What did job specialization lead to?
While only a few people were making food for the community, everyone else could be inventing, building, learning, etc. People now had free time to pursue other activities besides survival
How were domesticated animals important to early civilizations?
They could be used as a source of food, clothing, and agricultural labor, which allowed farmers to have larger fields, leading to more food
What makes a group of people a civilization instead of a small farming community?
A civilization is a large area of land with large populations and distinct, organized cultures
How many kingdoms did ancient Egypt have and what were they called?
Three: the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
Why was life in Egypt dependent on trade?
Its people needed a constant supply of timber and stone for building projects; they also valued luxury items including gold and spices
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