101 terms

AP Europe Period 3: 1815-1914

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Opium Wars
The British Empire pushes opium onto the Chinese so 30% of the country becomes addicted. The Chines governments threatens to cut off trade with Britain so England goes to war in order to open up Chinese ports. England wins and gains Hong Kong and Beijing as British lands. Now British law applies to these places.
1832 Reform Bill
This allows some members of the upper middle class to vote by lowering the property right requirement to vote. Also restructures Parliament seats and gets rid of some "rotten boroughs." The king threatened to raise more peers to the House of Lords because they would not pass the bill.
Chartism
A Political reform movement, that favored universal man sufferage and secret ballots
1842 Mine Act
No pregnant women or child can work in the mine
Ten hours Act
restricts the working hours of women and children in British factories to effectively 10 hours per day.
1833 Factory Act
Children under 9 could not work in textile mills.
Irish Potato Famine
Because of the corn laws, the Irish can only afford to farm potatoes which causes Ireland's population to double so that 1/3 of the population is dependent on the potato by 1841. However, a potato blight soon comes that can wipe out an entire crop in 48 hours. This leads to the starvation of around one million people. The Irish government begs the British government to repeal the corn laws so the people can afford to eat. Millions of Irish immigrate to the US however they are faced with oppression and violence
2nd Industrial Revolution
Complex technological processes allow for an explosion of technological improvements. New technologies allow Belgium, France and Germany to catch up to British production. Continental railroad systems are implemented which enhances continental trade and industry. Steel and oil become important
Bessemer Process
This is the use of air pockets to create a cheaper and more durable steel. This is so effective that the amount of steel produced in England jumps from 125,00 tons in 1860 to 32 million tons in 1913
Electricity
The first public power plant was created in 1881 which means that production increased because people could work by electric light. Also allows the working class to have a nightlife in relative safety
Urban Planning
The second industrial revolution allows for a physical space of class because people can now travel by electric street car.
Electric Street Car
This allows the middle class to live outside the city and create suburbs.
Public Education Act 1870
Set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England
Petite Bourgeoisie
A new social class that emerges during this time which consists of highly educated professionals that are not paid well, for example, teachers, nurses, accountants and clerks. They have a little bit of money to spend.
lower middle class which aspire to become the high middle class
Institutionalization of the Middle Class
Once the middle class gains the right to vote, they move to protect those rights and not help other gain that right. They become supporters of the establishment, for example they are the #1 class to work in government
Organized Sports
Appear for the first time as a leisure activity. Government invest in these activities for men as an extension of nationalism and as military training as a way to keep young men fit. In the German areas, Father Jahn had advocated calisthenics for the Fatherland--gymnastics.
Leisure Time
Thanks to the invention of the weekend, the working class is guaranteed a day and a half off. It is now harder to tell class by clothing due to department stores so distinctions are made through jewelry and technology. Drinking is also on the decline
Edwin Chadwick
Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population. This was a public health official in England who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses.
Public Health Act 1848
In England, First piece of western legislation to regulate the health standards of businesses. Gives the government to shut down unhealthy businesses
Louis Pasteur
Frenchman who uses his discovery of the bacterial theory to promote his idea of the pasteurization of milk
Labour Party
British political party founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the interests of the urban working class. Eventually their growth will help displace the Liberal Party
Revisionism
Developed by Eduard Bernstein and it says that a Marxist revolution will not happen however, societies will increasingly move towards communism. Led to some socialists working with governments.
Emmeline Pankhurst
A suffragette who says that men only respond to violence so the suffragette movement must become increasingly violent
Cult of Domesticity
This is a movement amongst middle class women
1. Virtue: Code for virginity. Cannot express sexual desire
2. Motherhood: You are a servant to your children and husband
3. Religion: The strong religious figure in the family
4. Charity: Women form savior societies
5. Refuge and Privacy: Create the home as a safe place for your husband and children to relax
6. Moderated Sexuality: Results in the total and complete objectification of women
Realism
Reflection on the way people are starting to perceive the world around them. Focused on the realistic portrayal of the everyday laborer
Charles Dickens
"Oliver Twist" His work is very popular and sympathetic to the poor because he had been poor at one time, also wrote"A Tale of Two Cities"
Thomas Malthus
His Essay on Population states that there are too many people and not enough food so population will soon outstrip food supply. He proposes that the poor are the biggest problem so it is acceptable for disease and poverty to run rampant in the poor in order to manage the population. He says that the poor do not understand sex which is why they have more kids than the aristos (false). Aristos hate Malthus but the working class loves his idea because they believe they had to work for their money and they use his ideas as a justification for their poor treatment of the poor.
David Ricardo
A wealthy individual who proposes The Law of the Iron Wage which says that it is good for a business to pay its employees as little as possible (Market wage instead of Natural Wage) because it decreases the population of the poor
Jeremy Bentham
British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism which is the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
John Stuart Mill
Proposes woman's right to vote and paying women an equal wage. Also proposes inheritance tax in order to equal the playing field.
Louis Blanc
Frenchman who is considered the father of socialism. He advocates for governmental control of public commodities (such as mines, water, transportation, and police). If it is for the public it should be run by the government
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist who tries out a new business model in which workers are provided with a school, basic housing needs and a living wage. He is extremely successful and becomes very rich
Karl Marx and Engel
Join together to write the "Communist Manifesto" This says that capitalism cannot sustain itself. Also says that there will be a workers revolution in Europe due to their bad conditions. Also says that religion is worse than capitalism as it is oppressive and enforces bad relationships
Theory of Surplus Labor
This was written by Marx and states that capitalists are successful because they exploit workers.
Charles Darwin
English scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
Origin of the Species
This is an explanation of natural selection for the first time. This does not create any social issues
Social Darwinism
This uses the principles of natural selection to explain and justify racial structures in society (slavery and colonialism). Created categories for race for the first time
Sigmund Freud
The un-seen reasons behind our reactions all have to do with sex. Everything is sex. It also used imprinting in his psychology which led him to get the results he wanted. Created his theory of the Id, Ego, and Super Ego
Madame Curie
known for discovering radium
Nietzsche
Radical questioning of the value and objectivity of truth n. His key ideas include the death of God, perspectivism, the Übermensch, the eternal recurrence, and the will to power.
Positivism
Developed by August Comte. This says that science and logic will someday replace the need for theological or religious views
Impressionism
Major Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s.Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful. Used light and color, very fast and messy
Expressionism
art movement of early 20th century that emphasized subjective feelings above objective observations and focused on conveying emotions
Surrealism
An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images
Monet
Impressionist Painter known for "water lily's"
Congress of Vienna
Following Napoleon's exile, this meeting of European rulers in Austria established a system by which the balance of power would be maintained, liberal revolutions would be repressed, as would imperial expansion, and the creation of new countries in Europe.
Principle of Legitimacy
This is a goal of the Congress of Vienna
Monarchs from the royal families who had rules before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power in order to keep peace and stability in Europe. Because of this, most nations in France go back to their pre-napolean leaders such as the Bourbon Family
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country. The goal of the Congress of Vienna is to surpress this because it destroys nations due to the huge number of subsets of people in European countries
Liberalism
Loves the free market with little tax revenue. In favor of a constitutional government in order to protect their wealth. They believe in laissez faire economics and Malthusian theory
Conservatism
those who went to the Congress of Vienna were politically inclined this way. The believed in a traditional monarchy with a national church and an economy controlled by the nobility. They hate nationalism and liberalism.
Concert of Europe
This term is used to refer to the Congress of Vienna because it created peace for 100 years and had no punishment on the French which helped decrease tension
1848 Revolutions
"When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold;" the French uprising against the increasingly oppressive Louis-Philippe sparked a wave of revolt (German states, Austria, Russia, Poland, Italy) by the liberal middle and lower classes against conservative governments; overall they failed because of internal class and ethnic divisions among the revolutionaries
Romanticism
Focus on the unseen supernatural and human emotion. Embracing folklore and a separation from sciences. It is the cultural foundation for Nationalism
Grimm Brothers
collected and published local German fairy tales, work is example of Romantic German nationalism. Considered ultimate nationalistic writings because they remove all non-german fairy tales
Carbonari
A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy Italy in the 1820s
Pan-Slavism
The ultimate expression of Slavic Nationalism. This is the belief that it is Russian duty to protect any people who speak languages slightly similar to Russian. Allowed Russia to invade countries in order to "protect their Slavic brothers and sisters"
Florence Nightingale
Advocates the Red Cross to help soldiers on both sides of the war. She starts sterilization which decreases death from infection.
Cavour
Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont who wants to unify Italy.
Unification of Italy
Italy is united by 1871 through the efforts of Camilo di Cavour and Vittorio Emanuel, the king of Sardinia
Garibaldi
He is supported by Cavour to liberate southern Italy, starting with Sicily, uses violence and leads the 'Red Shirts' to military victory
Otto von Bismarck
Was appointed to Prussian Chancellor by William I. He is personally conservative and hates liberalism and socialism but will do whatever he needs in order to win. He wants to unify the german confederation with Prussia through weakening Austria and stressing German nationalism
Zollverein
The name of the free trade zone that German states created prior to their unification.
German Confederation
Consisted of 38 sovereign states recognized by the Vienna settlement, and was dominated by Austria and Prussia, the confederation had little power and needed the consent of all 38 states to take action.
The War with Denmark
Bismarck adopts the principle of pan-slavism by saying that Germans in a Danish providence are being persecuted. He then makes an alliance with Austria and defeats the Danish in two months. In order to start a war with Austria later, Denmark does not give up promised territory. He makes sure that Austria has no other European allies by making deals with Russia, Italy, and France
The Austro-Prussian War
Bismarck makes alliances with Russia and France so Austria declares war on Prussia which makes Prussia look like a victim even though they are destroyed in seven weeks. The Northern German confederation votes and join with Prussia to create the North German Confederation
The Franco-Prussian War
Bismarck needs to unify the Southern german states that are controlled by France and very Catholic. He does this by proposing to put one of his cousins on the empty throne in Spain. He knows that this would start a war with France. Then Bismarck edits a telegram from William I so that it insults the French which starts the war. Before Bismarck reaches Paris, they hold a revolution and create a Third Republic however, they are eventually starved into submission of the Prussians. Bismarck leaves France extremely weakened so German can easily take over the Southern German states. This ends Napoleon III and forces him to flee to England
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
Bundesrat
Bismarck creates two houses, this is upper house consisting of all princes in the German empire. They hold the power of the purse and all real political power in Germany
Reichstag
This is the lower house in Germany. This is made of equal representation with universal male suffrage. this makes him initially popular among the working class however, they don't really have any political power
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.
Social Democratic Party
This party forms from the lower classes as an attack on the autocracy, military and nationalism. However, to maintain the survival of his party, Bismarck listens to these requests and instates social legislation (health insurance, accident insurance, old age pensions and disability pensions)
Dual Monarchy
After Austria's defeat by Prussia in 1866, Hungarians demanded more freedom. Austria responded in 1867 by forming this monarchy, also called the Austria-Hungary, in which Hungarians shared power with Austrians. Under this system, Austria's emperor is also the king of Hungary. They only work together in times of war and commerce
Napoleon III
He is elected President and then declares himself the emperor of France. In the first half of his reign, he is extremely authoritarian with secret police and censorship. However, in the second half, he becomes much more socialist with redesigning Paris, instating hospitals, distributing free medicine and giving workers the right to strike and organize. His foreign policies, however, lead to his downfall
The Third Republic
A parliamentary republican democracy that was created following the collapse of the Empire of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War. It survived until the invasion of France by the German Third Reich in 1940. It got rid of Universal Male Suffrage and its National Assembly was made up mostly of Monarchists which led to conflict
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish army officer is convicted of treason by a military court and goes to jail for 20 years. Evidence is found that shows that Major Esterhazy is the guilty party. However, the French army refuses to open the case again. This divides the nation and creates a crisis. The Army, anti-Semites, monarchists and Catholics feel he is guilty. Liberals, Republicans and anti-Catholics believe he is innocent and is only blamed because of Antisemitism. Eventually the case is reopened and is found guilty again by the French Army but the French President pardons him anyway and cuts all ties the French government has with the Catholic Church by separating church and state.
The Victorian Age
The term is used to describe late nineteenth century society, with its rigid moral standards and its sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people. This period is characterized with
Political Stability
Material Prosperity (height of the British Empire)
Strict Moral Code
Power struggle between monarchy and Prime Minister
Opium Wars
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire, caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
Benjamin Disraeli
Conservative, Aristocratic, Jewish Prime Minister in England. Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings. Also gave Queen Victoria the title of Emperess of India which backfires as the British believe they are a democratic empire. He strengthens the public health act and gives the working class the right to strike
Suez Canal
Egypt faces severe financial issues so the British buy the canal via hostile takeover. They have control until 1956.
Reform Bill of 1867
This gives working class the right to vote. Disraeli believes that this will make them vote conservative because they gave them their suffrage. This does end up destroying the Liberal and Malthusian party in England.
William Gladstone Jr
Realizes the Liberal Party must soften to stay in power. However, his social legislation is too little too late for the Liberal Party as he is the last great Liberal Prime Minister
Civil Service Reform Bill
This means that a person must pass a test in order to gain a governmental position. It makes the empire much more efficent
Ballot Act
This makes it illegal for employers to persuade employees to vote in a certain way
1884 Reform Bill
This extends the right to vote to farmers so there is finally universal male suffrage in Britain
David Lloyd George
Liberal Prime Minister who instated inheritance tax on things that Aristos were likely to own, this destroys Aristo families. Also instates a minimum Wage
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords to veto power in all money matters
National Insurance Act 1911
Provided sickness and unemployment benefits to workers in Britain
Alexander II
Russian leader; saw the need for reform because of the Crimean War loss. He emancipated Serfs, levied local taxes, operated elementary schools, built roads and bridges, trial by jury, equality before the law. The first political parties in Russia form. Later becomes more autocratic, still no Duma, is assassinated.
Zemstvos
A form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia.
Alexander III
Takes away the constitution of Russia and freedom before the law. Instates Pogroms and the Trans-Siberian Railroad
Pogroms
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia
Trans-Siberian Railroad
Constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia
The Congress of Berlin
Bismarck gives Slavic nations sovereignty which means Russia can no longer justify its interference. Bismarck gives Serbia a small land-locked country even though they believe they should get the entire Balkan Peninsula.
Dual Alliance
Bismarck's (Germany's) secret treaty with Austria which provided for support if attacked by Russia.
Wilhelm II
Kaiser of Germany from 1888-1914, leading up to World War I. Dismisses Bismarck, who was responsible for the European Alliance system, and pursues militarization of country
The Conference of Berlin
Bismarck divides up Africa using superficial lines with no basis in actual nationality. Sets up modern global structure
Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industrialize. Destroyed the Concert of Europe.
Theodor Herzl
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world.
Revolution of 1905
January, 1905, a group of workers marched on the tsar's Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to petition Nicholas for a popularly elected assembly and other political concessions. Government troops killed 130. Eventually the Duma was recognized, but the tsar gave himself powers to restrict it.
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized. He wrote an article, "J'Accuse" in protest of the way Dreyfus was wrongfully accused of a crime just for being Jewish

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