58 terms

Beowulf All Student Units Combined (Quizlet Live)

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Terms in this set (...)

Britons, Celts, and Romans
The early inhabitants of England
Jutes, Saxons, and Angles
The Germanic Invasions included which groups of people?
Loyalty to king and kin, boasting, gift-giving by kings
What were some of the common traits of the Anglo-Saxons?
The "Blood-price" set upon a man according to his rank which could be claimed by the relatives of a man wrongfully killed.
What was wergild?
Killing kinsmen
What was considered a great abomination?
A belief in fate and everything in life is pre-determined
What is Wyrd?
To preserve the history of the tribe and entertain the tribe with tales of great heroes.
What was the role of a scop?
Paganism
What was the original religion of the Anglo-Saxons?
Cremation
Anglo-Saxon funerals included:
When a (young) thane attaches himself to a strong leader and offers allegiance and military service to the leader. In return, the leader will share the spoils of war and conquest.
What is comitatus code?
Old English
The Anglo-Saxons used what language?
Cyning is another way to say what?
King
Having the throne passed down from father to son or being a successful warrior and leader
How could an Anglo-Saxon man become a king?
loyalty, honor, courage
An Anglo-Saxon warrior should have all of these characteristics:
The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words.

"So Hrothgar's men lived happy in his hall"
Alliteration
A break in the middle of a line - usually punctuated

Then, when darkness had dropped, Grendel
Caesura
"This tale is true, and mine. It tells...."
Four Hard Beats Per Line
Lines that end without punctuation and without completing a sentence or clause.
Enjambment
Words that are placed next to nouns or pronouns to explain the nouns or pronouns more fully (renaming).

Hrothgar, their lord, sat joyless...
Apposition/Variation
an epic is a poem that records and celebrates the heroic achievements of an individual or individuals. A primary epic is an epic poem that comes from an oral tradition. The Iliad and Odyssey are primary epics.
Primary Epic
Old English for "manprice"; As Donaldson writes, "If one of his kinsmen had been slain, a man had a special duty of either killing the slayer or exacting from him the payment of wergild. . . . The money itself had less significance as wealth than as proof that the kinsmen had done what was right. Relatives who failed either to exact (the term) or to take vengeance could never be happy, having found no practical way of satisfying their grief."
Wergild
an Old English term for poet. In Anglo-Saxon culture, this person had the important job of singing about the accomplishments of his patron and his people. This person functioned as both an entertainer and as an historian.
Scop
Anglo-Saxon culture was governed by the ideals of bravery, loyalty and generosity. The king or lord surrounded himself with a band of retainers, who are rewarded with the spoils of their victories
Heroic Ideal
a poetic device in Old English poetry consisting of a compound of two words in place of another, such as "Whale-road" for sea.
Kenning
A challenge of words--ritual (not a fight);
A contest of words
Flyting
The comparison between two things is continued beyond the first point of comparison. This extends and deepens a description.
Extended Metaphor
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
Foreshadowing
the continuation of meaning, without pause or break, from one line of poetry to the next
enjambment
ending punctuation at the end of a line
end-stopped
Anglo-Saxon poetry required 4 stressed syllables (hard beats) per line
Stressed Syllables
one line of Anglo-Saxon poetry is divided into two of these by caesura--two stressed beats in one half-line, two in the other
Half-line
An epic convention which means the hero will travel long distances, sometimes into supernatural realms.
Vast Setting
An epic convention - supernatural beings or monsters are present and must be overcome by the hero.
Supernatural Beings
An epic convention - A hero must go on a journey and whose task is to save his people, the land, the world, or even the universe. Frequently this hero has supernatural strength or power, is a great speaker and leader, and represents the ideals of his culture.
Epic Hero
An epic convention - The writing has formal, dignified language and often uses elaborate figures of speech.
Elevated Writing Style
Visually descriptive language. The words appeal to one's senses. "Great bodies beating at its beautiful walls;/ shaped and fastened with iron, inside/ And out, artfully worked, the building/ stood firm."
Imagery
The quality or condition of being humble; modest opinion or estimate of one's own importance, rank, etc. ; Lack of pride
Humility
Protagonist of the epic
Beowulf
Kinsman of Beowulf. Helps him win the fight against dragon when all the other warriors run away- proving himself worthy to be a successor
Wiglaf
Heartily welcomes Beowulf back from Denmark. Beowulf's uncle and King of the Geats
Hygelac
King of the Danes. Very successful until Grendel terrorizes his realm- father figure to Beowulf and a very good king
King Hrothgar
A demon descended from Cain, preys on Hrothgar's warriors in the Kings Hall- Heorot.
Grendel
Ogress- unnamed swamp hag, possesses fewer human qualities than Grendel
Grendel's mother
Ancient, powerful serpent- hordes treasure in a hidden mound.
The dragon
Legendary Danish King whom Hrothgars is descended. The epic opens up with the tale of this King
Shield Sheafson
Hrothgar's mead hall that Grendel keeps attacking
Hereot
A childhood friend of Beowulf's with whom Beowulf engages in a swimming contest in full armor while carrying a sword
Brecca
Beowulf's clan. A seafaring tribe residing in the south of Sweeden
Geats
Queen of the spear Danes and wife of Hrothgar
Wealhtheow
Northern people residing Denmark
Danes
Hrothgar's most trusted man/ best friend
Aschere
Beowulf's father / Hygelac's brother-in-law. Is dead when story begins
Ecgtheow
Danish warrior who is jealous of Beowulf
Unferth
Evil Danish King turned against his people
Heremod
Sword used by Beowulf
Naegling
Sword given to Beowulf by Unferth
Hrunting
King Hygelac's wife (queen)
Hygd
The watchman who guides Beowulf and his men from the coast to the mead-hall, Heorot, where he takes his leave.
Wulfgar