Unit 6 - Learning (Operant Conditioning #2)
Terms to Know regarding Operant Conditioning (part of Learning & Memory Unit)
Terms in this set (26)
is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior
an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.
Law of Effect
states that a behavior is more likely to recur if reinforced
procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows
are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward.
involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.
an innately (naturally) reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Secondary (or conditioned) Reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs
Partial Reinforcement Schedule
the response is reinforced only part of the time
a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer
a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule
the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.
a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows
sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows.
also known as punishment by removal, occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
Defined the Law of Effect
Designed the operant chamber (Skinner Box) and explained the principles of Operant Conditioning
Effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do; the reward may lessen and replace the person's original, natural motivation so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated.
seeks to decrease the frequency of behavior by withholding the reward until the desired behavior is demonstrated
schedule of reinforcement
how often an organism receives reinforcement for a given type of response
an individual learns how to get away from an aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior
when a person performs a behavior to ensure an aversive stimulus is not presented
an artificial economy based on tokens
these tokens act as secondary reinforcers, in that the tokens can be used for purchasing primary reinforcers
the participants in this are reinforced for desired behaviors (responses) with tokens
this reinforcement is designed to increase the number of positive behaviors that occur
when consistent effort fails to bring rewars
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