28 terms

Apologia Biology, 2nd Ed; Mod. 6 (modified)

This is a modified vocabulary list for Module 6. NOT ALL VOCAB WORDS INCLUDED
The transport of dissolved substances into cells
The breakdown of absorbed substances
The removal of soluble waste materials
The release of biosynthesized substances
Maintaining the status quo
Middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Organelles that store starches or oils
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure
Nuclear membrane
A highly- porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
Active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by apocess that requires energy
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water
Hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Activation energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going
Electron transport system
This is the last stage of cellular respiration. It takes place in the mitochondrion. The hydrogen that was produced in the previous three stages is carefully reacted with oxygen to make water.
Endoplasmic recticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells