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19 terms

Homeostasis & Cell Transport

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endocytosis
process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
Exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
Passive Transport
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion
Active Transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
Hypertonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Isotonic solution
in cells, solution in which the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside a cell
hypertonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Plasmolysis
when a cell is in a hypertonic environment, the cell will lose water to its surroundings, shrink, and its plasma membrane will pull away from the wall
Cytolysis
the rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
Vesicle
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.
concentration gradient
a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Facilitated Diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Cotransporter that actively moves sodium out of a cell and passively moves potassium into it.
Phospholipids
lipid that has a phosphate group replacing one of the fatty acids,
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Carrier Protein
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
Gated ion channel
A gated channel for a specific ion. When ion channels are opened or closed, the membrane potential of the cell is altered.